Gothic Era


(Gothic and Early Renaissance)

European Painting from the 13th to the 15 th Century



Gothic Art Map
Exploration: Revelations (Art of the Apocalypse)
Exploration: Gothic Era  (Gothic and Early Renaissance)
 M. of the Glatz Madonna Masaccio Starnina Taddeo di Bartolo
 M. Theodoric Masolino M. Westphalian Marco Zoppo
 Torriti Jacopo Hans Memling M. of Schloss Altar Holbein the Younger
 Stefan Lochner Rogier van der Weyden M. Norwegian Andrea Mantegna
 Bonaventura Berlinghieri Hugo van der Goes Derick Baegert Cosme Tura
 M. Bertram of Munden Gerard David Lukas Moser Holbein the Elder
 M. of Kaufmann Crucifixion  Antonello da Messina M. of Albrecht Altar M. of Book of Hours
 M. of Wittingau Piero della Francesca Frances Nicolas M. of Alkmaar
 Lippo Memmi Pedro Berruguete Master E.S. M. Francke
 M. of Narbonne Parament M. of Westminster Altar Martin Schongauer M. of the Gothic Art
 Malouel Jean M. of Psalter of de Lisle Israhel van Meckenem Bernat Martorell
 M. of Wilton Dyptych M. of Cologne Workshop Bartolome Bermejo Michael Pacher
 Borrassa Lluis Sassetta Fernando Gallego Quentin Massys
 Pisanello Jaume Huguet Hans Multscher Nuno Goncalves
 Konrad of Soest Nicolas Froment Colantonio Martinus Opifex
 M. of the Ortenberg Altar M. of St. Veronica  Lluis Dalmau Juan de Levi
 Filippo Brunelleschi M. of the Paradise Garden Barthelemy d'Eyck Saxon Workshop
 Joos van Gent Limburg brothers M. of Life of the Virgin Lorenzo Monaco
 Bartolo di Fredi Robert Campin M. of St. Bartholomew Jean Fouquet
 Hubert & Jan van Eyck Konrad Witz Dieric Bouts Jacopo Bellini 

Albrecht Durer

Master of the Rohan Book of Hours

Master of Alkmaar

Master Francke

See also collection:

Masters of the Gothic Art



The separate flowering of the German Late Gothic

While painting in broad areas of Germany had been dominated in the 1460s by fairly similar "Netherlandicizing" traits, towards the end of the 15th century artists in the south of the country increasingly began to emancipate themselves from such influences. Production flourished as private individuals and guilds competed with each other to crown all the main and subsidiary altars in their city and parish churches with al-tarpieces. Many cities saw the emergence of specialized workshops of high technical quality. Leading centres such as Vienna, Regensburg, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Ulm, Nordlin-gen, Mainz and Colmar, not to mention Basle and above all Strasburg, became magnets for artists in their own right. They no longer needed to refer back to the Netherlands, particularly since Cologne lay much closer and the focus across Europe was now shifting towards Italy. Augsburg in particular began to orient itself increasingly towards the South.

The anonymity of the Gothic artist

An artist's social standing varied considerably even between one German city and another, and in particular between the North and Italy. Just how early on the Italian painters had risen above the status of pure artisans can be seen from the fact that we know almost all the leading artists of the 14th century by name. While Vasari and other early writers on art played their part in this, they themselves lived over 200 years after Giotto and had to rely upon earlier records. They were thereby helped by signatures, which artists in the North were much slower to employ. Although isolated names are known to us from the 14th century (Theodoric, Bertram), the majority of artists — including many of the most prominent — remained nameless even in the final phase of Early Netherlandish painting in the early 16th century.
In order to distinguish between these anonymous artists, about a century ago makeshift names were invented for them, inspired either by the characteristics or, more commonly, the subject (Master of the Life of the Virgin), patron (Master Boucicaut), location, original location or even previous owner of particularly important works. Even amongst museum curators, there is a tendency to choose works by known masters over those by anonymous artists — something for which the works themselves give not the slightest grounds. Without the Master Boucicaut (active 1405—1420) or the Master of the Rohan Book of Hours (active c. 1420-1430), the history of French painting could not be written, not that of Bohemia without the painter of the Glatz Madonna (Master of the Glatz Madonna), the Master Hohenfurt or the Master of Wittingau.



Master of the Rohan Book of Hours
Lament over the Dead Christ
c. 1418
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris


Master of the Rohan Book of Hours
Louis II of Anjou
c. 1415
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris


Master of Alkmaar
Netherlandish painter (active c. 1500-1515)



Master of Alkmaar
Scenes from the Life of Joachim and Anna
c. 1500
Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem

Master Francke
German painter (early 15th century, active in Hamburg)

Master Francke
Birth of Jesus
Kunsthalle, Hamburg


Master Francke
Vir Dolorum (Man of Sorrows)
c. 1420
Museum der Bildenden Künste, Leipzig


Master Francke
Adoration of the Magi
Kunsthalle, Hamburg


Master Francke
Vir Dolorum (Man of Sorrows)
c. 1430
Kunsthalle, Hamburg

See also collection:

Masters of the Gothic


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