History of Literature

English literature



Richard Hakluyt

born c. 1552, London?
died Nov. 23, 1616, England

English geographer noted for his political influence, his voluminous writings, and his persistent promotion of Elizabethan overseas expansion, especially the colonization of North America. His major publication, The principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English nation, provides almost everything known about the early English voyages to North America.

Hakluyt’s family was of some social standing in the Welsh Marches and held property at Eaton. His father died when Richard was five years old, leaving his family to the care of a cousin, another Richard Hakluyt, a lawyer who had many friends among prominent city merchants, geographers, and explorers of the day. Because of these connections, and his own expertise in overseas trade and economics, the man was well placed to assist young Richard in his life work.

With the help of various scholarships, Hakluyt was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, entering in 1570 and taking his M.A. degree in 1577. His interest in geography and travel had been aroused on a visit to the Middle Temple, one of the four English legal societies, while in his early teens. As he writes in the “Epistle dedicatorie” to The principall Navigations, his cousin spoke to him of recent discoveries and of the new opportunities for trade and showed him “certeine bookes of Cosmographie, with an universall Mappe.” His imagination thus stirred, the schoolboy had thereupon resolved to “prosecute that knowledge and kinde of literature” at the university. Some time before 1580 he took holy orders, and, though he never shirked his religious duties, he spent considerable time reading whatever accounts he could find about contemporary voyages and discoveries.

Hakluyt also gave public lectures—he is regarded as the first professor of modern geography at Oxford—and was the first to display

both the olde imperfectly composed, and the new lately reformed Mappes, Globes, Spheares, and other instruments of this Art for demonstration in the common schooles.

He made a point also of becoming acquainted with the most important sea captains, merchants, and sailors of England. This was the time when English attention was fixed on finding the northeast and northwest passages to the Orient, and on Francis Drake’s circumnavigation of the world. Hakluyt was concerned with the activities of Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Martin Frobisher, who were both searching for a passage to the East; was consulting Abraham Ortelius, compiler of the world’s first atlas, and Gerardus Mercator, the Flemish mapmaker, on cosmographical problems; and was gaining approval for future overseas exploration from such politically prominent men as Lord Burghley, Sir Francis Walsingham, and Sir Robert Cecil. He thus embarked upon his career as a “publicist and a counsellor for present and future national enterprises across the ocean.” His policy, constantly expounded, was the exploration of temperate North America in conjunction with the search for the Northwest Passage, the establishment of England’s claim to possession based on the discovery of North America by John and Sebastian Cabot, and the foundation of a “plantation” to foster national trade and national well-being. These views are first set out in the preface he wrote to John Florio’s translation of an account of Jacques Cartier’s voyage to Canada, which he induced Florio to undertake, and are further developed in his first important work, Divers voyages touching the discouerie of America (1582). In this he also pleaded for the establishment of a lectureship in navigation. In 1583 Walsingham, then one of the most important secretaries of state, sent Hakluyt to Paris as chaplain to Sir Edward Stafford, the English ambassador there. He served in Paris also as a kind of intelligence officer, collecting information on the fur trade of Canada and on overseas enterprises from French and exiled Portuguese pilots. In support of Walter Raleigh’s colonizing project in Virginia, he prepared a report, known briefly as The Discourse on the Western Planting (written in 1584), which set out very forcefully the political and economic benefits from such a colony and the necessity for state financial support of the project. This was presented to Queen Elizabeth I, who rewarded Hakluyt with a prebend (ecclesiastical post) at Bristol cathedral but took no steps to help Raleigh. The Discourse, a secret report, was not printed until 1877. In Paris, Hakluyt also edited an edition of the De Orbe Novo of Pietro Martire so that his countrymen might have knowledge of the early successes and failures of the Spaniards in the New World.

Hakluyt returned to London in 1588. The outbreak of war with Spain put an end to the effectiveness of overseas propaganda and the opportunity for further exploration so he began work on a project that he had had in mind for some time. This was The principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation . . . , which, by its scholarship and comprehensiveness, transcended all geographical literature to date; the first edition, in one volume, appeared in 1589. About this time he married Duglesse Cavendish, a relative of Thomas Cavendish, the circumnavigator, and was appointed to the parish of Wetheringsett in Suffolk. Until after the death of his wife in 1597, little is heard of any geographical work, but he then completed the greatly enlarged second edition of the Voyages, which appeared in three volumes between 1598 and 1600. Shortly before its completion, he was granted by the Queen the next vacant prebend at Westminster so that he might be at hand to advise on colonial affairs. He gave information to the newly formed East India Company and continued his interest in the North American colonizing project; he was one of the chief promoters of the petition to the crown for patents to colonize Virginia in 1606 and at one point contemplated a voyage to the colony. Nor did his belief in the possibility of Arctic passages to the East fade, for he was also a charter member of the Northwest Passage Company of 1612. In 1613 appeared the Pilgrimage of Samuel Purchas, another clergyman fascinated with the new discoveries of the age; in spirit, it was a continuation of Hakluyt’s own work, and the two editors probably became acquainted. Purchas procured some of Hakluyt’s manuscripts after his death and used them in Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas his Pilgrimes of 1625.

Works by Hakluyt in addition to those mentioned above include translations of Antonio Galv„o’s Discoveries of the World . . . (1601) and of Hernando de Soto’s account of Florida, under the title Virginia richly valued by the description of . . . Florida . . . (1609). But it is the Voyages that remain his memorial. This, the prose epic of the English nation, is more than a documentary history of exploration and adventure; with tales of daring it mingles historical, diplomatic, and economic papers to establish British right to sovereignty at sea and to a place in overseas settlement. Its overriding purpose was to stimulate, guide, and encourage an undertaking of incalculable national import. Hakluyt was not blind to the profits arising from foreign trade. It has been asserted that the income of the East India Company was increased by £20,000 through a study of Hakluyt’s Voyages.

Gerald Roe Crone



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