History of Literature

French literature


Charles-Augustin de Sainte-Beuve


born Dec. 23, 1804, Boulogne, France
died Oct. 13, 1869, Paris

French literary historian and critic, noted for applying historical frames of reference to contemporary writing. His studies of French literature from the Renaissance to the 19th century made him one of the most respected and most powerful literary critics in 19th-century France.

Early life and Romantic period.
Sainte-Beuve was the posthumous only child of a tax collector. After a sheltered childhood, he completed his classical education in Paris and began to study medicine, which he abandoned after a year. A talented but in no way brilliant youth, he continued his general education at his own pace, attending the University of Paris and extension institutions, and in 1825 was drawn into journalism by his former teacher, Paul Dubois, editor of a new liberal periodical, Le Globe. In its pages he wrote his first essays on the poetry of Victor Hugo and soon became a member of his literary circle of Romantic writers and poets. In his first book, Tableau historique et critique de la poésie française et du théâtre français au XVIe siècle (1828; “Historical and Critical Description of French Poetry and Theatre in the Sixteenth Century”), he discovered, perhaps naturally, a Renaissance ancestry for Hugo and others of his new friends. A brief visit to England in 1828 strengthened his taste for the poetry of William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, both of whom were then little known in continental Europe. His visit to England may also account for the appearance of elements of the style of William Cowper and George Crabbe in volumes of his own poetry, Vie, poésies et pensées de Joseph Delorme (1829; “The Life, Poetry, and Thought of Joseph Delorme”) and Les Consolations (1830), which on their publication attracted some attention—not least because of their deliberate flatness and apparent uncouthness, much in contrast to the grander manner of Hugo and the poet Alfred de Vigny.

He had meanwhile developed a taste for social speculation and a concern for problems of religious experience. His social concerns first crystallized in a passing attachment to the group of reformers assembled around the doctrines of Count Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon. According to Saint-Simon’s disciples, the feudal and military systems were to be replaced by one controlled by industrial managers, and scientists rather than the church were to become the spiritual directors of society. When this group in 1830 took over management of Le Globe, Sainte-Beuve was entrusted with drafting two manifestos, or “professions of faith”; and, although he was soon to be repelled by the sentimental excesses and intemperance of its leaders, he retained for 30 years a lingering sympathy for its vision of a technocratic society founded on the brotherhood of man. Almost simultaneously, Sainte-Beuve came under the spell of a religious reformer and polemist, Félicité Robert de Lamennais, to whom for a time he looked for religious guidance. Lamennais was then the spiritual adviser of the wife of Victor Hugo, Adèle, with whom Sainte-Beuve in 1831 struck up a lasting but seemingly platonic relationship of great intensity. Many of the details of this shadowy affair are more or less accurately related in the critic’s privately printed volume of lyrics, Livre d’amour (1904), which was, however, not published in the lifetime of either of them.

Early critical and historical writings.
Besides Le Globe, Sainte-Beuve from 1831 contributed articles to another new periodical, the Revue des deux Mondes. The success of his articles in the two reviews prompted him to collect them as Critiques et portraits littéraires, 5 vol. (1832–39). In these “portraits” of contemporaries, he developed a kind of critique, novel and much applauded at the time, of studying a well-known living writer in the round and entering into considerable biographical research to understand the mental attitudes of his subject.

In the early 1830s Sainte-Beuve was hampered by his dislike for the newly established regime of King Louis-Philippe, which had aroused his anger mainly by its brutal handling of the riots of 1832. He accordingly refused several educational posts that would have relieved his poverty, fearing that they might compromise his freedom of judgment.

Sainte-Beuve’s friendship with Victor Hugo, which had already begun to cool in 1830, was almost extinguished by the anonymous publication of Sainte-Beuve’s autobiographical novel Volupté in 1834. In this book the hero Amaury’s hopeless love for the saintly and unapproachable Madame de Couaën reflects its author’s passion for Adèle Hugo. Volupté is an intensely introspective and troubling study of Amaury’s frustration, guilt, religious striving, and final renunciation of the flesh and the devil.

While continuing to produce intellectual “portraits” of his literary contemporaries, as further collected in Portraits contemporains (1846), Sainte-Beuve became a member of the circle presided over by Mme Récamier, the famous hostess, and the writer and politician François-René de Chateaubriand. Sainte-Beuve greeted the appearance of Chateaubriand’s memoirs with enthusiasm, though a decade and a half later he was to write an extensive and far more detached study of that writer and his literary circle, entitled Chateaubriand et son groupe littéraire sous l’empire (1861).

A softening of Sainte-Beuve’s attitude toward Louis-Philippe’s regime coincided in 1836 with an invitation from François Guizot, then minister of education, to accept a one-year appointment as secretary of a government commission studying the nation’s literary heritage. Guizot’s suggestion at that time that Sainte-Beuve demonstrate his eminence as a scholar by producing a major work led to Port-Royal, his single most famous piece of writing. In 1837 Sainte-Beuve accepted a year’s visiting professorship at the University of Lausanne to lecture on Port-Royal, the convent famous in the 17th century for advancing a highly controversial view of the doctrine of grace, loosely called Jansenism. For his lectures he produced Histoire de Port-Royal, 3 vol. (1840–48), which he revised over the next two decades. This monumental assemblage of scholarship, insights, and historical acumen—unique of its kind—covers the religious and literary history of France over half of the 17th century, as glimpsed through the internal records of Jansenism.

On completing his year in Lausanne, Sainte-Beuve returned to Paris, and in 1840 he was appointed to a post in the French Institute’s Mazarine Library, a position he held until 1848. He continued regular essay writing, and the first two volumes of Port-Royal had also been published when he was elected to the French Academy in 1844. By then he had already broken his earlier close links with the Romantics and was highly critical of what now appeared to him as the undisciplined excesses of that movement.

After the overthrow in 1848 of Louis-Philippe, Sainte-Beuve was not impressed by what he saw of revolutionary democracy. Unfairly accused in the republican press of accepting secret government funds for the repair of a chimney in his apartment, he resigned his library appointment in a fit of pique and settled for a year at the University of Liège (Belgium) as visiting professor. There he wrote his definitive—but unfinished—study of Chateaubriand and the birth of literary Romanticism and carried out research on medieval French literature.

The Causeries du lundi period.
After Sainte-Beuve returned to Paris in 1849, he was asked by Louis Véron, editor of the newspaper Le Constitutionnel, to write a weekly article or essay on current literary topics, to appear every Monday. This was the start of the famous collection of studies that Sainte-Beuve named Causeries du lundi (“Monday Chats”), after their day of publication. These critical and biographical essays appeared in Le Constitutionnel from October 1849 to November 1852 and from September 1861 to January 1867; in Le Moniteur from December 1852 to August 1861 and from September 1867 to November 1868; and in Le Temps in 1869. Their success was such that Sainte-Beuve began collecting them as Causeries du lundi, 3 vol. (1851); the definitive 3rd edition formed 15 volumes (1857–62). A new series, consisting of the articles of 1861–69, was published in 13 volumes as Nouveaux lundis (1863–70). In his articles Sainte-Beuve wrote about both past and present French authors, with some attention paid to those of other European nations as well.

Sainte-Beuve welcomed the rise of Napoleon III’s more dictatorial and orderly regime in the early 1850s. In due course, his sympathy was rewarded by appointment to the chair of Latin at the Collège de France, a well-paid but largely nominal post. His first lectures there were interrupted by the demonstrations of radical students critical of his support of Napoleon III, however, and he resigned his duties and salary, retaining only the title. The intended lectures were published as Étude sur Virgile (1857), a full-length study of Virgil. In 1858 Sainte-Beuve received a temporary teaching appointment in literature at the École Normale Supérieure, where he drew upon his 1848 researches to deliver a course on medieval French literature; but otherwise his whole later career was based on freelance essay writing.

Under the Second Empire, many of Sainte-Beuve’s earlier acquaintances, now dead or in retirement, were replaced by other writers: Gustave Flaubert, Ernest Renan, the Goncourt brothers, Prosper Mérimée, Ivan Turgenev, Matthew Arnold, and a large number of scholars, historians, and academicians. He frequented the salon of Napoleon III’s cousin, the princess Mathilde, somewhat of a literary centre itself, though less formal in style than had been the salon of Mme Récamier until 1848.

Nevertheless, the crushing task of researching, writing, correcting, and proofreading a 3,000-word essay for publication every Monday largely prevented Sainte-Beuve from exploring in the same leisurely way as in his youth the many new trends being developed by young writers. There is no doubt that his literary tastes, though unprecedentedly wide, ceased to develop much after about 1850.

In 1865 he was made a senator by imperial decree. His addresses to the Senate were unpopular with his colleagues because of his liberal views, but two were important: that in support of public libraries and liberty of thought (1867) and that on liberty of education (1868). In December 1868 Le Moniteur, which had been independent, was reorganized and became a government organ. An article Sainte-Beuve wished to publish in the paper caused difficulties, and for the first time he was asked to correct and cut a sentence. He withdrew the article and offered it to Le Temps, for which he remained a contributor until his death in 1869 after unsuccessful bladder stone operations.

It was with Sainte-Beuve that French literary criticism first became fully independent and freed itself from personal prejudice and partisan passions. That he was able to revolutionize critical methods was partly a result of the rise of the newspaper and the critical review, which gave prestige and wide circulation to criticism and guaranteed its independence.

Sainte-Beuve’s critical works, published over a period of about 45 years, constitute a unique collection of literary portraits. He ranged widely, covering every genre of literature and reinstating writers whose works had been forgotten, neglected, or misunderstood. To use his own phrase, Sainte-Beuve was primarily a creator of likenesses of great men (imagier des grands hommes). He wished, as he said, to understand fully those about whom he wrote, to live alongside them, and to allow them to explain themselves to present-day readers. To this end, he conceived the practice of providing in his essays extensive data on an author’s character, his family background, physical appearance, education, religion, love affairs and friendships, and so on. Though now a standard method of historical criticism, this practice led to allegations that Sainte-Beuve was providing merely biographical explanations of literary phenomena.

The field of criticism has widened since Sainte-Beuve’s day, and as a result he has come to be reproached for his omissions and injustices toward some of his great French contemporaries. As one who prepared the way for modern poetry, he is disappointing when writing on Charles Baudelaire, and he was unfair to Gustave Flaubert, Stendhal, and especially to Honoré de Balzac. But from his earliest review articles on Hugo, Sainte-Beuve was never afraid to introduce specific reservations into his most enthusiastic eulogies, and it was this uncompromising independence that earned him the reputation of being an unreliable, or even perfidious, critic of friends.

Sainte-Beuve was able to achieve his enormous output, which constitutes an encyclopaedia of thought, only by relentless labour and an unequaled tenacity of purpose, linked with unusually subtle intellectual power. A portion of his scholarly research has, with time, become old-fashioned, but within limits the precision of his documentation is almost always impeccable, even over details on which it has been challenged by literary opponents. This precision was due to a lifetime’s habit of extreme care in documentation and to a fanatical respect for historical accuracy.

To older critical traditions whose judgment rested on rigid standards of taste, Sainte-Beuve added a much more flexible and historical approach, entailing the sympathetic reconstruction of values not necessarily shared by himself and his readers. Although he was not without limitations as a critic of literature, his success in his vocation was probably unequaled in his time. A fitting summary of his life and work was given by Barbey d’Aurevilly in his words “Sainte-Beuve, abeille des livres . . . faisant miel de tout pour le compte de la littérature” (“Sainte-Beuve, like a bee among books . . . distilling honey from everything of literary value”).



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