History of Photography

Introduction. History of Photography (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

A World History of Photography (by Naomi Rosenblum)

The Story Behind the Pictures 1827-1991 (by Hans-Michael Koetzle)

Photographers' Dictionary.
(based on "20th Century Photography - Museum Ludwig Cologne")



Photographers' Dictionary

(based on "20th Century Photography-Museum Ludwig Cologne")



David Octavius Hill & Robert Adamson


David Octavius Hill

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

David Octavius Hill was born in 1802 in Perth. His father, a bookseller and publisher, helped to reestablish Perth Academy and David was educated there as were his brothers. When his older brother Alexander joined the publishers Blackwood's in Edinburgh, David went there to study at the School of Design. He learnt lithography and produced Sketches of Scenery in Perthshire which was published as an album of views. His landscape paintings were shown in the Institution for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland, and he was among the artists dissatisfied with the Institution who established a separate Scottish Academy in 1829 with the assistance of his close friend Henry Cockburn. A year later Hill took on unpaid secretarial duties. He sought commissions in book illustration, with four sketches being used to illustrate The Glasgow and Garnkirk Railway Prospectus in 1832, and went on to provide illustrations for editions of Walter Scott and Robert Burns. In 1836 the Royal Scottish Academy began to pay him a salary as secretary, and with this security he married his fiancée Ann Macdonald in the following year, but she was not strong and after the birth of their daughter she became an invalid. He continued to produce illustrations and to paint landscapes on commission.
Hill was present at the Disruption Assembly in 1843 when over 450 ministers walked out of the Church of Scotland assembly and down to another assembly hall to found the Free Church of Scotland. He decided to record the dramatic scene with the encouragement of his friend Lord Cockburn and another spectator, the physicist Sir David Brewster who suggested using the new invention, photography, to get likenesses of all the ministers present. Brewster was himself experimenting with this technology which only dated back to 1839, and he introduced Hill to another enthusiast, Robert Adamson. Hill and Adamson took a series of photographs of those who had been present and of the setting. The 5 foot x 11 foot 4 inches (1.53m x 3.45m) painting was eventually completed in 1866.
Their collaboration, with Hill providing skill in composition and lighting, and Adamson considerable sensitivity and dexterity in handling the camera, proved extremely successful, and they soon broadened their subject matter. Adamson's studio, "Rock House", on Calton Hill in Edinburgh became the centre of their photographic experiments. Using the Calotype process, they produced a wide range of portraits depicting well-known Scottish luminaries of the time, including Hugh Miller, both in the studio and in outdoors settings, often amongst the elaborate tombs in Greyfriars Kirkyard.
They photographed local and Fife landscapes and urban scenes, including images of the Scott Monument under construction in Edinburgh. As well as the great and the good, they photographed ordinary working folk, particularly the fishermen of Newhaven, and the fishwives who carried the fish in creels the 3 miles (5 km) uphill to the city of Edinburgh to sell them round the doors, with their cry of "Caller herrin" (fresh herring). They produced several groundbreaking "action" photographs of soldiers and - perhaps their most famous photograph - two priests walking side by side.
Their partnership produced around 3000 prints, but was cut short after only four years due to the ill health and untimely death of Adamson in 1848. The calotypes faded under sunlight, so had to be kept in albums, and though Hill continued the studio for some months, he became less active and abandoned the studio, though he continued to sell prints of the photographs and to use them as an aid for composing paintings. In 1862 he remarried, to the sculptress Amelia Paton, and around that time took up photography again, but the results were more static and less successful than his collaboration with Adamson. He was badly affected by the death of his daughter and his work slowed. In 1866 he finished the Disruption picture which received wide acclaim, though many of the participants had died by then. The photographer F.C. Annan produced fine reduced facsimiles of the painting for sale throughout the Free Church, and a group of subscribers raised £1,200 to purchase the painting for the church. In 1869 illness forced him to give up his post as secretary to the R.S.A., and he died in May 1870.

Robert Adamson, c. 1843.
Calotype. Gemsheim Collection, Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Robert Adamson

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Robert Adamson, (April 26, 1821 January 14, 1848) was a Scottish pioneer photographer.
Adamson was born in St. Andrews, Scotland, he was hired in 1843 by David Octavius Hill (1802-1870), a painter of romantic Scottish landscapes. He was commissioned to make a group portrait of the 470 clergymen who founded the Free Church of Scotland. Hill required calotypes from which he would paint. Distinguished persons from many fields came to be photographed by the partners. Together they made more than 1,000 portraits and numerous views of Edinburgh between 1843 and 1848, until Adamson died at the age of 26. Hill returned to painting and the partners' great work was not rediscovered until 1872.

Disruption Group: Rev. Dr John Bruce, Rev. John Sym, Rev. Dr David Walsh
c. 1843


George Meikle Kemp
c. 1843


The Reverend Thomas Henshaw Jones


Hugh Miller


John Henning and Female Audience
c. 1844



Masons working on a carved Griffin for the Scott Monument
c. 1844


Alexander Rutherford, William Ramsey, and John Liston
c. 1844-1845


Highland Guard
c. 1844-45


Glynn, an Actress and Reader
c. 1845


Life Study, Dr. George Bell
c. 1845


East Gable of the Cathedral and St. Rule's Tower, St. Andrews


James Drummond
c. 1846


Mrs Elizabeth Johnstone, Newhaven
c. 1846


Sergeant of the 42nd Gordon Highlanders reading the Orders of the Day
April 1846


Lady Ruthven, ca. 1845


Newhaven Fishwives, ca. 1845


The Fairy Tree at Colinton, ca. 1846

Photographic portrait of Miss Elizabeth Chalmers and her brother David Chalmers. 1843-1847


Part of photographic panorama of Edinburgh from the Castle, looking to the East. 1843-1847


The Rev. James Brewster of Craig


Rev. Dr. Abraham Capadose


Revd. James Julius Wood, Greyfriars' Church


James Linton


Lady E. Eastlake, 1843-1848


The Letter


Ayr Presbytery


Rev. Dr. John Macdonald


Arbroath Presbytery Group


Reverend Jaffray and Dhanjiobai Nauroji


D. O. Hill


The General Assembly Hall of the Free Church, Edinburgh 1844


Miss Elizabeth Rigby 1845


Newhaven Fishermen 1845


John Henning as "Edie Ochiltree" 1847


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