CAMPANILE, BAPTISTERY, AND CATHEDRAL, PISA.
418. Pisa Baptistery, Cathedral, and
Campanile (view from the west). 1053-1272
Pisa, Italy. Campo dei Miracoli (panoramic
Pisa Baptistery (detail)
Interior of the Baptisery in Pisa
419. Plan of:
1) Pisa Baptistery;
3) Campanile; and
The most famous tower of all owes its renown to an accident: the Leaning
Tower of Pisa (or, more precisely, the Campanile of Pisa Cathedral),
which began to assume its present angle, because of poor foundations,
even before completion (figs. 418 and 419; note that its axis is
slightly bent). The tower forms part of a magnificent ensemble on an
open site north of the city that includes the Cathedral and the
circular, domed Baptistery to the west of it. They represent the most
ambitious monument of the Tuscan Romanesque, reflecting the wealth and
pride of the city-republic of Pisa.
Far more than Lombardy, with its strong northward connections, Tuscany
retained an awareness of its classical heritage throughout the Middle
Ages. If we compare Pisa Cathedral, on the one hand, with S. Apollinare
in Ravenna and, on the other, with St.-Sernin in Toulouse (see figs. 303
and 400), we are left in little doubt that the latter is its closer
relation. But the essential features and even the detached bell tower
still continue much as we see them in S. Apollinare. The plan of Pisa
Cathedral is essentially that of an Early Christian basilica, elaborated
into a Latin cross by the addition of two transept arms that resemble
smaller basilicas in themselves, with apses of their own. The crossing
is marked by a dome, but the rest of the church is wooden-roofed except
for the aisles (four in the nave, two in the transept arms), which have
groined vaults. The interior (fig. 420) has somewhat taller proportions
than an Early Christian basilica, because there are galleries over the
aisles, as well as a clerestory. Yet the splendid files of classical
columns supporting the nave and aisle arcades inevitably recall such
Roman structures as St. Paul Outside the Walls (see fig. 302).
The only deliberate revival of the antique Roman style in Tuscan
architecture was in the use of a multicolored marble "skin" on the
exteriors of churches. Little of this is left in Rome, a great deal of
it having literally been "lifted" for the embellishment of later
structures, but the interior of the Pantheon still gives us some idea of
it (see fig. 250). We can recognize the desire to emulate such marble
inlay in Pisa Cathedral and its companions, which are sheathed entirely
in white marble inlaid with horizontal stripes and ornamental patterns
in dark-green marble. It is combined with blind arcades and galleries,
producing a lacelike richness of texture and color
very different from the austerely simple Early Christian exteriors. But
by now the time had long passed when it might be thought undesirable for
a church to compete with the outward splendor of classical temples.
420. Interior, Pisa Cathedral
BAPTISTERY OF S. GIOVANNI, FLORENCE.
421. Baptistery of S. Giovanni,
In Florence, which was to outstrip Pisa commercially and artistically,
the greatest achievement of the Tuscan Romanesque is the Baptistery
(fig. 421), opposite the Cathedral. It is a domed octagonal structure of
impressive size. Here the green-and-white marble paneling follows severe
geometric lines, and the blind arcades are extraordinarily classical in
proportion and detail. The entire building, in fact, exudes so classical
an air that the Florentines themselves came to believe, a few hundred
years later, that it had originally been a temple of Mars. And even
today the controversy over its date has not yet been settled to
everyone's satisfaction. We shall return to this baptistery a number of
times, since it was destined to play an important role in the
Gates of Paradise, by Ghiberti.
Battistero di San Giovanni (Florence).
The altar, Inside view of Battistero di San Giovanni
Church in Florence, Italy
Parma Cathedral, Italy
Parma Cathedral (Duomo) is a cathedral church in Parma, Emilia-Romagna
(Italy). It is an important Italian Romanesque cathedral: the dome, in
particular, is decorated by a highly influential illusionistic fresco by
Renaissance painter Antonio da Correggio.
The construction was begun in 1059 by bishop Cadalo, later antipope with
the name of Honorius II, and was consecrated by Paschal II in 1116. A
basilica existed probably in the 6th century, but was later abandoned;
another church had been consecrated in the rear part of the preceding
one in the 9th century by the count-bishop Guibodo. The new church was
heavily damaged by an earthquake in 1117 and had to be restored. Of the
original building, remains can be seen in the presbytery, the transept,
the choir and the apses, and in some sculpture fragments. The wide
façade was completed in 1178: it has three loggia floors and three
portals, whose doors were sculpted by Luchino Bianchino in 1494. Between
the central and the right doors is the tomb of the mathematician Biagio
Pelacani, who died in 1416.
The Gothic belfry was added later, in
1284-1294: a twin construction on the left side had been conceived, but
it was never begun. Beside the Cathedral lies the octagonal Baptistry of
CATHEDRAL OF TERUEL.
The Cathedral of Teruel is a church in Teruel, Aragon, Spain. Entitled
to St. Mary, it is a notable example of Mudéjar architecture. Together
with other churches in the town and in the province of Zaragoza, is
listed in the UNESCO Heritage site Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon since
The cathedral traces its origins to the foundation of the town by
Alfonso II of Aragon, who ordered the construction of a church, entitled
to St. Mary de Mediavilla, in Romanesque style. In the late 13th
century, the morisco architect Juzaff restructured it, rising the nave
and the two aisles, and giving them a Mudéjar appearance. The Mudéjar
bell tower was finished in 1257. The Romanesques apses where replaced by
Gothic-Mudéjar ones in the 14th century.
In 1423 Pope Benedict XII, of Aragonese
origins, elevated it to the rank of collegiate. In 1538 was built the
dome in the nave, a work of Martín de Montalbán. It has an octagonal
plan with, on the external side, double mullioned windows with
Plateresque decorations. In 1587, with the creation of the diocese of
Teruel, the church was promoted to the cathedral role e reconsecrated.
The facade, in neo-Mudéjar style, was
finished in 1909.
The Cathedral of Teruel, Aragon, Spain
SANT PERE DE GALLIGANS.
Monasterio de Sant Pere de Galligants, Spain
Sant Pere de Galligants is Benedictine abbey in Girona, Catalonia,
Spain. Since 1857, it is home to the seat of the Archaeological Museum
of Catalonia in the city.
The monastery was built from 992, outside the walls of Girona, when
Ramon Borrell, count of Barcelona gave to the monks rights over the
quarter of Sant Pere. The monks held the ruler of the quarter until
1339, when King Peter IV of Aragon restored it to Aragon.
In 1117 Ramon Berenguer III of
Barcelona united the monastery to the Abbey of Sainte-Marie de Lagrasse,
in what is now France, though Sant Pere kept an abbot of his own and a
large degree of autonomy. Sant Pere was never a big community, and the
church was not the local parish, and only baptisms were held in the
monastery. It started to decay from the 15th century, and in 1592 it was
united to the also decaying monasteries of Sant Miquel de Cruïlles and
Sant Miquel de Fluvià. In 1835 the monastery included an abbot and four
monks. It was declared a national monument in 1931. In 1362, when the
monastery was enclosed within the city's walls, it was redesigned to a
more defensive shape.
Monasterio de Sant Pere de Galligants, Spain
The small cloister is an example of
Catalan Romanesque architecture. The northern gallery dates to 1154,
while the remaining ones are from 1190. The capitals of the columns have
motifs very similar to those in the cloisters of Sant Cugat del Vallès
or in the Cathedral of Girona. Some depict scenes from Jesus' life,
while others show typical Romanesque elements such as lions or sirens.
The current church was built in 1130, and has a nave and two aisles with
a transept, and four apses. The portal, in a rather archaic style, comes
probably from a previous building. It is surmounted by a rose window
with a diameter of 3.5 meters.
The interior features a series of side
columns, with capitals having vegetable motifs, used to reinforce the
central vault. The capitals of the apse columns are more elaborated, and
were probably executed by different artists. Some of them have been
attributed to the Master of Cabestany.
The bell tower has an octagonal plan
and two sectors, the upper one, of two floors featuring with double
arches divided by columns, decorated with Lombard bands.
Monasterio de Sant Pere de Galligants, Spain. Detail of a capital in
Church of the Dormition, Vladimir, Russia
Dormition Cathedral in Vladimir
(sometimes translated Assumption Cathedral) used to be a mother church
of medieval Russia in the 13th and 14th centuries. It is part of the
World Heritage Site entitled White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal.
The cathedral was commissioned by
Andrew the Pious in his capital Vladimir and dedicated to the Dormition
of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), whom he promoted as the patron saint of
his lands. Originally erected in 1158-1160, the 6-pillared 5-domed
cathedral was expanded in 1185-1189 to reflect the augmented prestige of
Vladimir. Embracing the area of 1178 sq. meters, it remained the largest
of Russian churches for the following 300 or 400 years.
Andrew the Pious, Vsevolod the Big
Nest, and other rulers of Vladimir-Suzdal were interred in the crypt of
this church. Unlike many other churches, the cathedral survived the
great devastation and fire of Vladimir in 1239, when the Mongol hordes
of Batu Khan took hold of the capital.
The exterior walls of the church are
covered with elaborate carvings. The interior was painted in the 12th
century and then repainted by the great Andrei Rublev and Daniil Chernyi
in 1408. The Dormition Cathedral served as a model for Aristotele
Fioravanti when he designed the eponymous cathedral in the Moscow
Kremlin in 1475-1479. A lofty belltower, combining genuinely Russian,
Gothic, and Neoclassical influences, was erected nearby in 1810.