Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

GOTHIC ART
 

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

STAINED GLASS - Part 1, 2

PAINTING - Part 1, 2

 

SCULPTURE

 

Italy

 


CHURCH FACADES.

Italian Gothic church facades generally do not rival those of the French cathedrals as focal points of architectural and sculptural endeavor. The French Gothic portal, with its jamb statues and richly carved tympanum, never found favor in the south. Instead, we often find a survival of Romanesque traditions of architectural sculpture, such as statues in niches or small-scale reliefs overlaying the wall surfaces (compare figs.
430 and 481).

At Orvieto Cathedral, Lorenzo Maitani (before 1270-1330) covered the wide pilasters between the portals with relief carvings of such lacelike delicacy that we become aware of them only if we see them at close range. The tortures of the damned from The Last judgment on the southernmost pilaster (fig. 505) make an instructive comparison with similar scenes in Romanesque art (such as fig. 426). The hellish monsters are as vicious as ever, but the sinners now evoke compassion rather than sheer horror. Even here, we feel the spirit of human sympathy that distinguishes the Gothic from the Romanesque.

 

 


Lorenzo Maitani

Lorenzo Maitani, (born c. 1275, near Siena, republic of Siena [Italy]—died June 1330, Orvieto, Papal States [Italy]), Italian architect and sculptor primarily responsible for the construction and decoration of the facade of Orvieto Cathedral.

Maitani established his reputation in Siena and was called to supervise the construction at Orvieto in 1308 when the unprecedented height and span of the cathedral’s vaults and arches presented unforeseen difficulties. In 1310 he received the title capomaestro of the cathedral and became, in addition, overseer of bridges and civic buildings.

Maitani’s most important contribution was the design of the cathedral’s facade. Though his contributions to the facade as a sculptor are difficult to determine, it may be assumed that his sensibility dictated the overall scheme. Two of the panels attributed to Maitani, “Scenes from Genesis” and “The Last Judgment,” are delicate bas-reliefs unified by an ascending vine that suggests a French Gothic influence. Sculptures generally attributed to Maitani include the bronze “Eagle of St. John” and the “Angel of St. Matthew.”



Façade of the Cathedral. 1310-30. Duomo, Orvieto
 

 


 


First Pillar: Stories from Genesis. 1310-30. Marble. Duomo, Orvieto
 


First Pillar: Stories from Genesis. Adam and Eve
 


First Pillar: Stories from Genesis. Creation of Eve
 


First Pillar: Stories from Genesis.
 


First Pillar: Stories from Genesis.
 

 


Second Pillar: The Messianic Phrophesies. 1310-30. Marble. Duomo, Orvieto
1310-30
Marble
Duomo, Orvieto
 


Third Pillar: Stories from the New Testament. 1310-30. Marble. Duomo, Orvieto
1310-30
Marble
Duomo, Orvieto
 


Fourth Pillar: The Last Judgment. 1310-30. Marble. Duomo, Orvieto
1310-30
Marble
Duomo, Orvieto


505.
LORENZO MAITANI. The Last Judgment (detail), from the facade of Orvieto Cathedral, ñ 1320

 


The Angel: Symbol of St Matthew. c. 1329. Bronze. Duomo, Orvieto
The Eagle: Symbol of St John. c. 1329. Bronze. Duomo, Orvieto

 
 

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