Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

GOTHIC ART
 

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

STAINED GLASS - Part 1, 2

PAINTING - Part 1, 2

 

SCULPTURE

 

Italy


 

Andrea Pisano

Pisano Andrea, also called Andrea da Pontedera (born c. 1270–90, Pontedera, near Pisa—died c. 1348–49, Orvieto, Papal States), one of the most important Italian sculptors of the 14th century whose chief works were executed in Florence, where he came under the influence of Giotto. Andrea is recorded as the author of the earliest of three bronze doors for the baptistery of the cathedral of Florence, which, completed in 1336, has 20 quatrefoil panels with scenes from the life of St. John the Baptist and 8 with figures of the virtues. The figures are gilded and set against a smooth bronze surface.

On the death of Giotto, in 1337, Andrea succeeded him as the chief architect in charge of the construction of the campanile (bell tower) of the cathedral of Florence, to which he added two stories adorned with panel reliefs. Most of the reliefs on the lower part, depicting the arts, sciences, and occupations of man and three scenes from Genesis, are generally attributed to Andrea and his studio. Statues in niches of the campanile (originally placed above the reliefs now in the cathedral museum), representing David and Solomon and two sibyls, have been attributed to Andrea, but this has been disputed. Two statuettes of Christ and Saint Reparata also in the cathedral’s museum are generally considered his.

The iconography of the baptistery door was indebted to the mosaics on the interior of the building and to Giotto’s frescoes in Sta. Croce. The composition of the door was influenced by that of the bronze doors of the cathedral of Pisa. Andrea’s style is marked by a simplicity, restraint, and skillful arrangement of figures that places him in the front rank of the sculptors of the period.

He is last recorded as superintending architect of the cathedral of Orvieto, in which office his son Nino succeeded him.

 


Andrea Pisano. South Doors: Life of Saint John the Baptist, Florence Baptistry. 1330-36



Andrea Pisano. Reliefs, South Doors: Life of Saint John the Baptist, Florence Baptistry.
1330-36, gilded bronze, 49.7 x 43.2 cm

 



Scenes on the south doors
(Andrea Pisano)

1.
The angel announces to Zachariah. 2. Zachariah is struck mute
3. Visitation 4. Birth of the Baptist.
5.
Zachariah writes the boy's name. 6. St John as boy in the desert.
7.
He preaches to the Pharisees. 8. He announces Christ.
9.
Baptism of his disciples. 10. Baptism of Jesus.

11.
St John reprimands Herod Antipas. 12. Incarceration of St. John.
13.
The disciples visit St. John. 14. The disciples visit Jesus.
15.
Dance of Salome. 16. Decapitation of St. John.
17.
Presentation of St John's head to Herod Antipas. 18. Salome takes the head to Herodias
19.
Transport of the body of St. John. 20. Burial.

A.
Hope B. Faith C. Charity D. Humility
E.
Fortitude F. Temperance G. Justice H. Prudence

 
 
 


Angel announces to Zachariah
Zachariah is struck mute
St. John reprimands Herod Antipas
Incarceration of St. John


Visitation
Birth of the Baptist
Disciples visit St. John
Disciples visit Jesus
 


Zachariah writes the boy's name
St. John as boy in desert
Dance of Salome
Decapitation of St. John
 


Preaching to the Pharisees
St. John announces Christ
Presentation of St. John's head to Herod Antipas
Salome takes head to Herodias

 


Baptism of his disciples
Baptism of Jesus
Transport of St. John's body
Burial of St. John
 


Hope
Faith
Charity
Humility
 


Fortitude and Temperance
Justice and Prudence

 


Andrea Pisano. Madonna del latte
 


Andrea Pisano. Santa Reparata. 1340s. Marble
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence

 

 

The International Style in the South

During the later fourteenth century, northern Italy proved particularly hospitable to artistic influences from across the Alps, not only in architecture (see Milan Cathedral, fig. 482), but in sculpture as well. The Apostles atop the choir screen of St. Mark's in Venice (fig. 507), carved by Jacobello and Pierpaolo dalle Masegne about 1394, reflect the trend toward greater realism and the renewed interest in weight and volume that culminated in the work of Claus Sluter, even though these qualities are not yet fully developed here. Both figures betray a marked "Gothic sway" as well. Yet their kinship with Benedetto Antelami's King David (fig. 430) of a century earlier is equally apparent. With the Apostles from St. Mark's, then, we are on the threshold of the "International Style," which flourished throughout western Europe about 1400 to 1420.
 


Jacobello and Pierpaolo dalle Masegne


see also: Jacobello Dalle
Masegne


Italian family of sculptors and architects.

Jacobello [Giacomello; Jacobellus; Jacomelo] dalle Masegne ( fl from 1383; d after 1409) and his brother

Pierpaolo dalle Masegne ( fl from 1383; d c. 1403) were the sons of Antonio dalle Masegne, a stonemason in Venice. They usually undertook and signed their major commissions together, as was the common practice in Venice for family partnerships. However, although there is no documentary evidence to prove it, it is possible to recognize their individual styles in separate sections of their collaborative works.







 

507. JACOBELLO and PIERPAOLO DALLE MASEGNE.
Apostles,
on the choir screen, c.
1394.
Marble, height
ń. 53" (134.6
cm). St. Mark's, Venice


 


Jacobello Dalle Masegne. Altarpiece. Marble, 385 x 313 cm. Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice
 


Students, detail of the Tomb of Giovanni da Legnano. 1383-86. Marble, 63,3 x 76,5 cm. San Domenico, Bologna

 
 

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