Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

GOTHIC ART
 

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

STAINED GLASS - Part 1, 2

PAINTING - Part 1, 2

 

SCULPTURE

 

Italy

 

The International Style in the South


GHIBERTI.

The outstanding representative of the International Style in Italian sculpture was Lorenzo Ghiberti (c.
1381-1455), a Florentine who as a youth must have had close contact with French art. We first encounter him in 1401-2, when he won a competition for a pair of richly decorated bronze doors tor the Baptistery of S. Giovanni in Florence. (It took him more than two decades to complete these doors, which fill the north portal of the building.) Each or the competing artists had to submit a trial relief, in a Gothic quatrefoil frame, representing the Sacrifice of Isaac. Ghiberti's panel (fig. 508) strikes us first of all with the perfection of its craftsmanship, which reflects his training as a goldsmith. The silky shimmer of the surfaces and the wealth of beautifully articulated detail make it easy to understand why this entry was awarded the prize. If the composition seems somewhat lacking in dramatic force, that is as characteristic of Ghiberti's calm, lyrical temper as of the taste of the period. The realism of the International Style did not extend to the realm of the emotions. The figures, in their softly draped, ample garments, retain an air of courtly elegance even when they enact scenes of violence.



508.
Lorenzo Ghiberti. Sacrifice of Isaac. 1401. Bronze relief, 45 x 38 cm.
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence

 

However much his work may owe to French influence, Ghiberti proves himself thoroughly Italian in one respect: his admiration for ancient sculpture, as evidenced by the beautiful nude torso of Isaac. Here our artist revives a tradition of classicism that had reached its highest point in Nicola Pisano but had gradually died out during the fourteenth century.

But Ghiberti is also the heir of Giovanni Pisano. In Giovanni's Nativity panel (fig. 502) we noted a bold new emphasis on the spatial setting. The trial relief carries this same tendency a good deal further, achieving a far more natural sense of recession. For the first time since classical antiquity, we are made to experience the background of the panel not as a flat surface but as empty space from which the sculpted forms emerge toward the beholder, so that the angel in the upper right-hand corner seems to hover in midair. This pictorial quality relates Ghiberti's work to the painting of the International Style, where we find a similar concern with spatial depth and atmosphere. While not a revolutionary himself, he prepares the ground for the great revolution that will mark the second decade of the fifteenth century in Florentine art and that we call the Early Renaissance.
 

 


Lorenzo Ghiberti

Lorenzo Ghiberti, (born c. 1378, Pelago, Italy—died Dec. 1, 1455, Florence), important early Italian Renaissance sculptor, whose doors (Gates of Paradise; 1425–52) for the Baptistery of the cathedral of Florence are considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Italian art in the Quattrocento. Other works include three bronze statues for Or San Michele (1416–25) and the reliefs for Siena cathedral (1417–27). Ghiberti also wrote I Commentarii, three treatises on art history and theory from antiquity to his time.

Ghiberti’s mother had married Cione Ghiberti in 1370, and they lived in Pelago, near Florence; at some point she went to Florence and lived there as the common-law wife of a goldsmith named Bartolo di Michele. They were married in 1406 after Cione died, and it was in their home that Lorenzo Ghiberti spent his youth. It is not certain which man was Ghiberti’s father, for he claimed each as his father at separate times. But throughout his early years, Lorenzo considered himself Bartolo’s son, and it was Bartolo who trained the boy as a goldsmith. Ghiberti also received training as a painter; as he reported in the autobiographical part of his writings, he left Florence in 1400 with a painter to work in the town of Pesaro for its ruler, Sigismondo Malatesta.

Ghiberti returned quickly to his home city when he heard, in 1401, that a competition was being held for the commission to make a pair of bronze doors for the Baptistery of the cathedral of Florence. He and six other artists were given the task of representing the biblical scene of Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac in a bronze relief of quatrefoil shape, following the tradition of the first set of doors produced by Andrea Pisano (1330–36). The entry panels of Ghiberti and of Filippo Brunelleschi are the sole survivors of the contest. Ghiberti’s panels displayed a graceful and lively composition executed with a mastery of the goldsmith’s art. In 1402 Ghiberti was chosen to make the doors by a large panel of judges; their decision brought immediate and lasting recognition and prominence to the young artist. The contract was signed in 1403 with Bartolo di Michele’s workshop—overnight the most prestigious in Florence—and in 1407 Lorenzo legally took over the commission.

The work on the doors lasted until 1424, but Ghiberti did not devote himself to this alone. He created designs for the stained-glass windows in the cathedral; he regularly served as architectural consultant to the cathedral building supervisors, although it is unlikely that he actually collaborated with Brunelleschi on the construction of the dome as he later claimed. The Arte dei Mercanti di Calimala, the guild of the merchant bankers, gave him another commission, about 1412, to make a larger than life-size bronze statue of their patron saint, John the Baptist, for a niche on the outside of the guilds’ communal building, Or San Michele. The job was a bold undertaking, Ghiberti’s first departure from goldsmith-scale work; it was, in fact, the first large bronze in Florence. Ghiberti successfully finished the St. John in 1416, adding gilding in the following year. The technical achievement and the modernity of its style brought Ghiberti commissions for two similarly large bronze figures for guild niches at Or San Michele: the St. Matthew in 1419 for the bankers’ guild and the St. Stephen for the wool guild in 1425.

These last two commissions brought Ghiberti into open competition with the newly prominent younger sculptors Donatello and Nanni di Banco, who had made stone statues for Or San Michele after Ghiberti’s first figure there. Ghiberti’s St. John still followed many of the conventions of the Gothic tradition. It combined small-scale details with a larger-than-life scale that made the figure appear overwhelmed by the drapery. Donatello’s St. Mark and St. George and Nanni di Banco’s St. Philip and Quattro Santi Coronati (“Four Crowned Saints”) were as large as Ghiberti’s figure but were designed with monumental proportions to match their scale. The boldness and strength of the weighty new classical figures constituted a challenge for Ghiberti, but he met it with success in his next sculptures, and maintained his preeminent position as a leading artist in Florence.

The teens and ’20s were years of flourishing expansion for Ghiberti and his firm. He had completed a great deal of the modelling and casting of the panels for the Baptistery doors by 1413, and he was in control of a smoothly functioning workshop with many assistants. In 1417 Ghiberti was asked to make two bronze reliefs for the baptismal font of the cathedral in Siena; he was so busy that he finished them, under pressure from the Sienese authorities, 10 years later. In 1419, when Pope Martin V was in Florence, Ghiberti was called on as a goldsmith to fashion a morse and mitre for the pontiff; unfortunately these pieces, like other examples of Ghiberti’s art in rare stones and precious metals, have disappeared. During these years, too, Lorenzo found a wife—Marsilia, the 16-year-old daughter of Bartolomeo di Luca, a wool carder. She soon bore him two sons: Tommaso was born in 1417 and Vittorio the next year; his sons later joined Ghiberti in his business, and Vittorio continued its operation after his father’s death. Ghiberti’s artistic success also had its financial rewards; a surviving tax return of 1427 lists property in Florence, land out of town, and a substantial amount of money invested in government bonds to his credit. Over the years, his real estate and monetary holdings continued to grow. In addition to being well paid, Ghiberti was a businessman who managed his affairs shrewdly. He was a well-to-do member of Florentine society and a rich man among the artists of his time.

Ghiberti was actively involved with and interested in other artists and their work; some (Donatello, Paolo Uccello, Michelozzo, Benozzo Gozzoli) had worked for a time in his workshop as young assistants. Ghiberti’s association with the painter Fra Angelico is documented: Ghiberti designed the frame for his Linaiuoli Altarpiece. In his commentaries, Ghiberti exaggerates only a bit when he proudly claims that “few important things were done in our city which were not devised or designed by my hand”; among his undocumented works may be noted some half-dozen floor tombs and sarcophagi, but the vast extent to which Ghiberti’s providing of designs and models influenced Florentine art is hard to measure. He appears to have shared his knowledge and talent generously and freely. Long before the completion of his second pair of doors (the Gates of Paradise) in 1452, the fund of figures and models assembled in connection with this work, which the public saw only later, was open to painters of frescoes in the Chiostro Verde (Green Cloister) of SS. Annunziata and to the sculptor Luca della Robbia, who was working on a marble singing gallery for the cathedral. Naturally, the impact of the Gates increased after they were installed.

When he was 45 years old, Ghiberti finished the first doors. They are the effort of more than 20 years of work and the major sculptural complex of the International Gothic style in Italy. They show some changes in the latest parts, however, to a more classical style that emphasizes the bodies of figures more than the elegant draperies that enfold them. Ghiberti created expressive, strong faces based on examples he knew of ancient Roman art—portrait busts and carved sarcophagi. Because of the success of the first doors, a contract was soon signed with the Calimala for a second pair, but the political and financial fortunes of the city and the guild did not permit work to get underway for about five years.

Following the completion of the first doors, Ghiberti embarked on a decade of intense exploration of new ways of forming pictorial space and making gracefully active and lifelike figures. His works of the late 1420s show him able to make space increasingly intelligible in a series of clearly receding planes; using shallow relief, Ghiberti depicted volumes of bodies and deep architectural spaces. Examples of these are the reliefs in Siena; the Dati Tomb (the bronze plaque for the floor tomb of the Dominican general Leonardo Dati); and the two shrines in Florence, Cassa di S. Zenobius (a bronze casket with relief panels of stories from the saint’s life) and Shrine of SS. Protus, Hyacinth, and Nemesius (a bronze container for the relics of three martyrs). It is likely that at this time Ghiberti encountered Leon Battista Alberti, a young humanist scholar, who, inspired by the new art in Florence, was composing theoretical treatises on the visual arts. Their mutual belief that beauty was synonymous with the conception they shared of antique art makes it difficult to know whether or not Alberti’s ideas in De pictura (On Painting) precede the three panels of the second door (Isaac, Joseph, and Solomon), which are the visual equivalent of those ideas. The beauty of antique art meant for both Alberti and Ghiberti an idealization of nature; capturing its essence meant revealing life by depicting movement, life’s most salient visible characteristic. For the representation of a realistic spatial setting for these naturalistic figures, Alberti’s treatise sets forth a perspective system for projecting such spaces onto the picture plane of a painting or bas-relief. Ghiberti’s three panels seem an embodiment of the humanist’s formulations for Renaissance pictorial art, and it is clear that any assessment of his art must account for the incorporation of the new theory as well as for the beauty and charm of these works. Ghiberti was himself so proud that he claimed to have made, in all 10 panels, architectural settings in the relation with which the eye measures them, and real to such a degree that…one sees the figures which are near appear larger, and those that are far off smaller, as reality shows it.

Ghiberti’s writings, I Commentarii (probably completed around 1447), shed more light on his humanist interests.The commentaries are composed of three books. The first, a history of art in ancient times, is Ghiberti’s digest of writings of Latin authors on the subject; in it he reveals his belief that the inseparability of practice and theory is responsible for the excellence of ancient art. The second book records the art of the immediate past, and Ghiberti expresses his admiration for certain Sienese painters and for a late 14th-century northern goldsmith named Gusmin who is known only through Ghiberti’s pages; this book includes an autobiography, in which Ghiberti establishes his place in the history of art. The last book was apparently more theoretical, but in the surviving manuscript it is fragmentary. The commentaries demonstrate Ghiberti’s confidence in his position as an important leader in the Florentine Renaissance—one interested in recapturing the art of the ancients and studying it as a humanist scholar would, and one who developed a new style all’antica in which he freely created art works with a grace and beauty that have been found winning since their invention.

Constance Lowenthal

Encyclopædia Britannica

 

 


Baptistery of S. Giovanni in Florence
Eastern Door of the Baptistery in Florence by Lorenzo Ghiberti

 


508. Lorenzo Ghiberti. Eastern Door of the Baptistry in Florence. (Porta del Paradiso)
1425-52
Gilded bronze
Baptistry, Florence

 

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Scenes on the Gates of Paradise


1.
Adam and Eve
2.
Cain and Abel
3.
Noah
4.
Abraham
5.
Isaac with Esau and Jacob
6.
Joseph
7.
Moses
8.
Joshua
9.
David
10.
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba

 


1. The Creation of Adam and Eve
 


2. Cain and Abel
 


3. Noah and the Flood

 
 

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