Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER SIX
 

THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
 

PAINTING
ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26

 
 


ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

 


Juan Bautista de Toledo.

Juan Bautista de Toledo. Spanish architect educated in Italy, in the Italian High Renaissance. As many Italian renaissance architects, he had experience in both architecture and military and civil public works. Born, either in Toledo or in Madrid around 1515. Died May 19, 1567 in Madrid. He was buried in Madrid, in the choir of the primitive “Convento de Santo Tomás, Iglesia de la Santa Cruz”.

Perhaps he started his career in architecture in Rome, between 1534 and 1541, working for Michelangelo and Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese), completing the facade and courtyard of Palazzo Farnese. Then, possibly, he continues his training in the construction site of St. Peter's, under the direction of Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Another hypothesis is that he worked for Antonio da Sangallo the Younger in both Fortaleza da Basso, Florence and St. Peter’s Basilica of Rome.

Juan Bautista de Toledo, an enigmatic and puzzling personality, was known in Florence and Rome as Giovanni Battista de Alfonsis. However, in Naples and Madrid, he was identified as Juan Bautista de Toledo: both Spanish architects had the same hand writing. Perhaps, his true name was Juan Bautista de Toledo Alfonsis.

 

Juan de Herrera.

Juan de Herrera (1530 – January 15, 1597) was a Spanish architect, mathematician and geometrician.

One of the most outstanding Spanish architects in the 16th century, Herrera represents the peak of the Renaissance in Spain. His sober style was fully developed in buildings like the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. The Herrerian style was named after him, and was representative of the architecture of the Spanish Empire of Philip II and his Austrian successors.

As a Renaissance man, Herrera was interested in all the branches of knowledge of his times. His Discurso sobre la figura cúbica (Discussion of the Cubic form) tells us about his notable knowledge about geometry and mathematics. He also participated in the military campaigns of Charles V in Germany, Flanders and Italy


Juan de Herrera completed his studies at the University of Valladolid in the spring of 1548. He started his architectural career in 1561 with the works in the Royal Palace of Aranjuez.

In 1563 he starts his collaborations with Juan Bautista de Toledo in the construction of El Escorial. In 1562 he had written the Book of the Astronomical knowledge (Libro del saber de astronomía). After the death of Juan Bautista de Toledo in 1567, Herrera becomes the director architect of the works. Herrera modifies the plans and enlarges the program, changing the image of the façades and introducing his personal sober style. The main keys of his design are the impressive horizontal unified composition and the nude use of the granite, omitting the classical orders for large surfaces.

He builds the monumental western façade, the Basilica with its central composition plan and the pavilion of the Patio de los Evangelistas (Court of the Evangelists). He also modifies the constructive techniques and the roofing. This style introduced in the monastery influenced Spanish architecture for over a century with the name of Herrerian style.

The plans of the Cathedral of Valladolid and the Archivo General de Indias were also designed by him. He was the first original designer for the Plaza Mayor in Madrid.

Following the wish reflected in his testament, written in 1584, his sepulchre is located in the Church of San Juan Bautista, in Maliaño, Cantabria.
 

 

Juan Gomez de Mora.

Juan Gómez de Mora (Madrid, 1586 – Madrid, 1648) was a Spanish architect. His father, also Juan Gómez, was court painter to Philip II of Spain and brother to the architect Francisco de Mora.

 


El Escorial

by Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera

 

The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (in Spanish, Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial) is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres (28 miles) northwest of Madrid in the autonomous community of Madrid in Spain.

At the foot of the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range, the complex was commanded by King Philip II of Spain as a necropolis for the Spanish monarchs and the seat of studies in aid of the Counter-Reformation. It was designed by the architects Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera in an austere classical style, and built from 1563 to 1584. It is shaped as a grid in memory of the martyrdom of Saint Lawrence. It is said that during the battle of Saint Quentin (1557), the Spanish troops destroyed a small hermitage devoted to Lawrence. The King Philip II of Spain decided to dedicate the monastery to the saint in thanks for his victory.

 



San Lorenzo de El Escorial

 


Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain.

 


El Escorial, by
Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera.

 


Royal Basilica of the Monastery of El Escorial

 


The Escorial

 



Trading houses in the market of the Monastery of El Escorial built by
Juan de Herrera.
Houses in front of the Monastery of El Escorial.

 



Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial. Fachada de acceso principal.

 


The Escorial, by
Juan Bautista de Toledo, Juan de Herrera, at near Madrid, Spain, 1562 to 1584.

 


Courtyard of the Kings and the Basilica of the Monastery of El Escorial, San Lorenzo of El Escorial, Spain

 


Logia de
Juan Bautista de Toledo. Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial

 

 


The cathedral of Valladolid, officially known as the Catedral de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Valladolid,
is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Valladolid, Spain. It was designed by
Juan de Herrera.

 


Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. Palacio de Aranjuez.

 



The Alcázar
Juan de Herrera, among others south facade

 


The Alcazar

 
 

Discuss Art

Please note: site admin does not answer any questions. This is our readers discussion only.

 
| privacy