Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER SIX
 

THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
 

PAINTING
ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26

 
 


ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

 


Juan Bautista de Toledo.

Juan Bautista de Toledo. Spanish architect educated in Italy, in the Italian High Renaissance. As many Italian renaissance architects, he had experience in both architecture and military and civil public works. Born, either in Toledo or in Madrid around 1515. Died May 19, 1567 in Madrid. He was buried in Madrid, in the choir of the primitive “Convento de Santo Tomás, Iglesia de la Santa Cruz”.

Perhaps he started his career in architecture in Rome, between 1534 and 1541, working for Michelangelo and Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese), completing the facade and courtyard of Palazzo Farnese. Then, possibly, he continues his training in the construction site of St. Peter's, under the direction of Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Another hypothesis is that he worked for Antonio da Sangallo the Younger in both Fortaleza da Basso, Florence and St. Peter’s Basilica of Rome.

Juan Bautista de Toledo, an enigmatic and puzzling personality, was known in Florence and Rome as Giovanni Battista de Alfonsis. However, in Naples and Madrid, he was identified as Juan Bautista de Toledo: both Spanish architects had the same hand writing. Perhaps, his true name was Juan Bautista de Toledo Alfonsis.

 

Juan de Herrera.

Juan de Herrera (1530 – January 15, 1597) was a Spanish architect, mathematician and geometrician.

One of the most outstanding Spanish architects in the 16th century, Herrera represents the peak of the Renaissance in Spain. His sober style was fully developed in buildings like the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. The Herrerian style was named after him, and was representative of the architecture of the Spanish Empire of Philip II and his Austrian successors.

As a Renaissance man, Herrera was interested in all the branches of knowledge of his times. His Discurso sobre la figura cúbica (Discussion of the Cubic form) tells us about his notable knowledge about geometry and mathematics. He also participated in the military campaigns of Charles V in Germany, Flanders and Italy


Juan de Herrera completed his studies at the University of Valladolid in the spring of 1548. He started his architectural career in 1561 with the works in the Royal Palace of Aranjuez.

In 1563 he starts his collaborations with Juan Bautista de Toledo in the construction of El Escorial. In 1562 he had written the Book of the Astronomical knowledge (Libro del saber de astronomía). After the death of Juan Bautista de Toledo in 1567, Herrera becomes the director architect of the works. Herrera modifies the plans and enlarges the program, changing the image of the façades and introducing his personal sober style. The main keys of his design are the impressive horizontal unified composition and the nude use of the granite, omitting the classical orders for large surfaces.

He builds the monumental western façade, the Basilica with its central composition plan and the pavilion of the Patio de los Evangelistas (Court of the Evangelists). He also modifies the constructive techniques and the roofing. This style introduced in the monastery influenced Spanish architecture for over a century with the name of Herrerian style.

The plans of the Cathedral of Valladolid and the Archivo General de Indias were also designed by him. He was the first original designer for the Plaza Mayor in Madrid.

Following the wish reflected in his testament, written in 1584, his sepulchre is located in the Church of San Juan Bautista, in Maliaño, Cantabria.
 

 

Juan Gomez de Mora.

Juan Gómez de Mora (Madrid, 1586 – Madrid, 1648) was a Spanish architect. His father, also Juan Gómez, was court painter to Philip II of Spain and brother to the architect Francisco de Mora.

 


The Plaza Mayor

by Juan de Herrera and Juan Gomez de Mora
 

The Plaza Mayor is a central plaza in the city of Madrid, Spain. The Plaza Mayor is only a few blocks away from another famous plaza, the Puerta del Sol. The Plaza Mayor is rectangular in shape, 129 by 94 meters, and is surrounded by three-floored residential buildings with 237 balconies. It has a total of nine entranceways. The Plaza Mayor was built during the Austrian period. The Casa de la Panadería, serving municpal and cultural functions, dominates the Plaza Mayor.

The origins of the Plaza go back to 1581 when Philip II of Spain asked Juan de Herrera, a renowned Renaissance architect, to devise a plan to remodel the busy and chaotic area of the old Plaza del Arrabal. Juan de Herrera was the architect who designed the first project in 1581 to remodel the old Plaza del Arrabal but the construction didn't start until 1617, during the Philip III of Spain's reign. The king asked Juan Gomez de Mora to continue with the project, and he finished the porticoes in 1619. Nevertheless, the Plaza Mayor as we know it today is the work of the architect Juan de Villanueva who was entrusted with its reconstruction in 1790 after a spate of big fires. Juan de Bolonia's statue of Philip III on horseback in the center of the square dates back to 1616.

 


The Plaza Mayor, begun 1590
Juan de Herrera and Juan Gomez de Mora

 

 


The Plaza Mayor
Juan de Herrera and Juan Gomez de Mora
completed 1619

 


View of the Casa de la Panadería in the Plaza Mayor de Madrid.

 


Juan Gomez de Mora, Plaza Mayor, Madrid

 


Casa de la Villa, Plaza de la Villa
Juan Gomez de Mora
one source says 1630; another 1644

 


Façade of the church of Real Monasterio de Santa Isabel (a convent), at 46-48 Calle de Santa Isabel (street) in Centro district in Madrid (Spain). Original building was made between 1560 and 1570. Church was projected by
Juan Gomez de Mora and built between 1640 and 1665.

 
 

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