Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER NINE
 

THE ROCOCO
 

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
PAINTING

 
 


ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

 

ITALY

 

Carlo Fontana.
 

 


Carlo Fontana

Carlo Fontana, (born 1634/38, Bruciate, near Como, Milan—died 1714, Rome), Italian architect, engineer, and publisher whose prolific studio produced widely imitated designs for fountains, palaces, tombs, and altars, as well as the curved facade on the S. Marcello al Corso (1682–83). His many international students included M.D. Poppelmann of Germany, James Gibbs of England, Filippa Juvarra of Italy, Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt and Fischer von Erlach of Austria, and others.

Fontana worked for Gian Lorenzo Bernini on Sta. Maria dei Miracoli (1662–79) and finished Bernini’s Palazzo di Montecitorio (1650–94) (formerly the Palazzo Ludovisi), which had been started for the family of Innocent X. Fontana’s students continued the Bernini tradition into the 18th century.

Fontana’s other works are the church of S. Biagio in Campitelli (reassembled on Piazza Capizucchi; before 1665), SS. Apostoli (1702–08), the Casanatense Library (1708), the Cappella Sistina of Sta. Maria Maggiore, Cappella Ginetti in S. Andrea della Valle (1671), the Cappella Cibo in Sta. Maria del Popolo (1683–87), the Baptismal Chapel in St. Peter’s (1692–98), and the Cappella Albani in S. Sebastiano (1705). His tombs include those of Queen Christina of Sweden in St. Peter’s (1702), Clement XI, and Innocent XII. His largest ecclesiastical ensemble was the Jesuit church and college at Loyola, Spain (1681–1738), which influenced Spanish, Austrian, and south German architects.

After he was appointed surveyor of St. Peter’s, he published the Templum Vaticanus, with its many engravings (1694). Twenty-seven volumes of his manuscripts and drawings are now in the Royal Library at Windsor.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Carlo Fontana. San Marcello al Corso, Rome.

 

 

Luigi Vanvitelli.
 

 



Luigi Vanvitelli

Luigi Vanvitelli, (born May 26, 1700, Naples, Spanish Habsburg domain [Italy]—died March 1, 1773, Caserta, near Naples), Italian architect whose enormous Royal Palace at Caserta (1752–74) was one of the last triumphs of the Italian Baroque.

Vanvitelli was trained by Niccolò Salvi and worked with him on lengthening the facade of Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Palazzo Chigi (1664–1745, Rome). He completed several other buildings, including the Chiesa del Gésu (1743–45), before he began work on the Royal Palace. The palace, commissioned by the Spanish king of Naples as the summer residence of the Bourbons of Spain, was modelled after the imperial architecture of the palace of Versailles. The quadrilateral building at Caserta, enclosing four courtyards, has 1,200 rooms, a huge chapel, and a theatre. In addition to its celebrated staircase, which is the largest in Italy, the palace offers many magnificent vistas.

Vanvitelli also built the Lazzaretto and Arco Clementino for Pope Clement XII in Ancona; the Chiesa dell’Annunciata (1756/61–1782) in Naples, and the monastery of S. Agostino. He rebuilt Michelangelo’s S. Maria degli Angeli in Rome and contributed to other works in Milan, Siena, Pesaro, Macerato, Perugia, Loreto, and elsewhere. Besides designing secular buildings, he built the aqueduct Carolino (1752–64), 25 miles long, which supplies Naples with water.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Diana and Actaeon
c. 1770 (designed)
Marble, over life-size
Royal Residence, Caserta

 


Chiesa del Gesù, di Luigi Vanvitelli, in piazza Stracca ad Ancona




Lazzaretto
Ancona, Marche, Italy
1732-1738




Basilica della Santa Casa
Loreto, Marche, Italy




Lazzaretto
Ancona, Marche, Italy
1733-1738

 
 

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