Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER NINE
 

THE ROCOCO
 

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
PAINTING

 
 


ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

 


Ange-Jacques Gabriel.
 

 


Ange-Jacques Gabriel

Ange-Jacques Gabriel, also called Jacques-Ange Gabriel (born Oct. 23, 1698, Paris, France—died 1782, Paris), French architect who built or enlarged many châteaus and palaces during the reign of Louis XV. He was one of the most important and productive French architects of the 18th century.

The most celebrated member of a family of architects, he was the son of Jacques V (1667–1742), whom he succeeded as premier architect to Louis XV and director of the Academy of Architecture in 1742. Gabriel was the chief architect for most of the major building projects undertaken during Louis XV’s reign. Under him the royal châteaus and palaces were redesigned, enlarged, or renovated in order to satisfy Louis’ standards of personal comfort. Gabriel was careful to respect the work of his predecessors as he modified the structures, and he worked in the tradition of the great 17th-century masters François Mansart and Claude Perrault in sustaining a French style. Among Gabriel’s royal commissions were enlargements or extensions of the châteaus of Fontainebleau (begun 1749), La Muette (begun 1746), Compiègne (begun 1751), and Choisy (1754–56); an ambitious project for the Palace of Versailles, including the completion of its right wing and the building of the opera house (1761–68) and the Petit Trianon (1762–68) there; and the construction of the École Militaire (1750–68; Military Academy) in Paris. Gabriel provided virtually all of the royal residences with theatres, built pavilions and hermitages for some of them, and designed hunting lodges in the major royal forests. The magnificent Place Louis XV (now Place de la Concorde) in Paris (begun 1755) demonstrates his talents as an urban planner.

Gabriel’s structures exhibit a “noble simplicity” in the austere but harmonious arrangement of their masses and their subdued Classical decoration. He excelled at endowing large structures with majestic proportions, as exemplified in the École Militaire. He was also notable for his use of attached columns in place of pilasters, in both exterior and interior facades. His best-known work is the Petit Trianon at Versailles, which is universally famous for its harmonious proportions and elegant, Palladian-inspired lines.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Place de la Concorde, Paris, designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, 1766-1755
 



Chateau of the Petit Trianon in the park at Versailles




Le Petit Trianon, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, at Versailles, France, 1762 to 1768




The Place de la Bourse, in Bordeaux, France




Pavillon du Butard a La Celle-Saint-Cloud (Yvelines, France)

 
 

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