Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER NINE
 

THE ROCOCO
 

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
PAINTING

 
 


ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

 

GERMANY AND AUSTRIA
 

 
Lucas von Hildebrandt.

 

 


Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt

Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt, (born Nov. 14, 1668, Genoa—died Nov. 16, 1745, Vienna), Austrian Baroque architect and military engineer whose work strongly influenced the architecture of central and southeastern Europe in the 18th century. The types of buildings he developed for parish churches, chapels, villas, garden pavilions, palaces, and houses were much imitated, spreading his architectural principles throughout and beyond the Habsburg empire.

Born in Italy of German parents, Hildebrandt studied architecture, town planning, and military engineering in Rome. He joined the Austrian Imperial Army as a fortification engineer and participated (1695–96) in three Piedmontese campaigns under Prince Eugene of Savoy, afterward moving to Vienna and turning to civil architecture. In 1700 he was appointed court engineer and employed as an architect by Prince Eugene and other Austrian aristocrats, in Vienna, in Salzburg, and in southern Germany.

After the death of the Baroque architect Johann Fischer von Erlach, a strong influence on Hildebrandt, the younger man became the leading court architect. The main elements of his style were derived from the French architectural era of Louis XIV and from north Italian late-Baroque models, particularly the undulating walls of the Italian architect Guarino Guarini. He became famous for his architectural decoration, articulating the surface of his buildings with quasipictorial effects and introducing new motifs of decoration.

Of Hildebrandt’s numerous works some of the most outstanding are the Belvedere in Vienna, summer residence of Prince Eugene of Savoy (1700–23); Schönborn Castle near Göllersdorf, northwest of Vienna (1710–17); the Mirabell Palace (1721–27) in Salzburg; and the episcopal residence at Würzburg, Ger. (1729–37).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Belvedere panorama




Hildebrandt's Upper Belvedere is one of the best known Austrian palaces

 

 


Johann Michael Fischer.
 

 


Johann Michael Fischer

Johann Michael Fischer, (born 1692, Burglengenfeld, Bavaria [Germany]—died May 6, 1766, Munich), German architect, one of the most creative and prolific designers of late Baroque and Rococo churches in southern Germany.

Fischer was trained by his father, a mason. As an apprentice in Bohemia and Moravia beginning in 1713, he became familiar with the churches of the Dientzenhofer family and returned to Munich in 1718 to become foreman of city architecture. One of his earliest independent projects was the renovation of the Premonstratensian abbey church of Osterhofen (1726–29). The major elements of Fischer’s churches are a centralized ground plan, with rounded-off interior angles, interconnecting spaces, and rhythmically undulating patches of lush decoration, the whole being brilliantly lit by large windows. His productivity was astounding; in 1735 alone he planned three outstanding churches—St. Michael’s in Berg-am-Laim, the pilgrimage church at Aufhausen, and the Augustinian church at Ingolstadt.

Fischer’s greatest work is generally considered to be the Benedictine abbey church at Ottobeuren (1748–55), a vast Rococo structure centred on three successive cupolas and lavishly—but elegantly—decorated with sculpture, stuccowork, and paint. The Benedictine abbey church of St. Marius and St. Arianus at Rott-am-Inn (1759–62) may be stylistically more significant, as its relative simplicity heralds the approach of Neoclassicism.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 




Basilika St. Alexander und Theodor der Benediktinerabtei Ottobeuren
1737-66




Basilika St. Alexander und Theodor der Benediktinerabtei Ottobeuren (detail)

 


The façade of Ottobeuren Abbey




Niederaltaich abbey church
Bavaria, Germany





Rott-am-Inn
Bavaria, Germany

 



The church (1739-65) of the former Benedictine Zwiefalten Abbey
is a masterpiece of Johann Michael Fischer,
next to Balthasar Neumann the most significant German architect in the 18th century.




Exterior of Zwiefalten Abbey




Deutschland, Bayern, Landkreis Landsberg am Lech, Dießen, Marienmünster, Vorderansicht




Deutschland, Bayern, Landkreis Landsberg am Lech, Dießen, Marienmünster, Vorderansicht




Deutschland, Bayern, Landkreis, Dachau, Gemeinde Bergkirchen, Pfarrkirche St. Johannes Baptist

 
 

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