Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM,

AND ART NOUVEAU


PAINTING

SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

PHOTOGRAPHY

 


SCULPTURE

 

Aristide Maillol

In sculpture, there are no tendencies to be equated with Post-Impressionism, but a form of Symbolism makes its appearance about
1900. Sculptors in France of a younger generation had by then been trained under the dominant influence of Rodin and were ready to go their own ways. The finest of these, Aristide Maillol (1861-1944), began as a Symbolist painter, although he did not share Gauguin's anti-Greek attitude. Maillol might be called a "classic primitivist": admiring the simplified strength of early Greek sculpture, he rejected its later phases. The Seated Woman (fig. 1009) evokes memories of the Archaic and Severe styles rather than of Phidias and Praxiteles. The solid forms and clearly defined volumes also recall Cezanne's statement that all natural forms are based on the cone, the sphere, and the cylinder. But the most notable quality of the figure is its harmonious, sell-sufficient repose, which the outside world cannot disturb. A statue, Maillol thought, must above all be ''static," structurally balanced like a piece of architecture. It must represent a state of being that is detached from the stress of circumstance, with none of the restless, thrusting energy of Rodin's work. In this respect, the Seated Woman is the exact opposite of The Thinker (see fig. 970). Maillol later gave it the title MediterraneeThe Mediterraneanto suggest the source from which he drew the timeless serenity of his figure.




1009. Aristide Maillol.
Seated Woman (Mediterranee).
ń. 1901.




Aristide Maillol. Seated Woman (Mediterranee).

 

 


Aristide Maillol

Aristide Maillol, (born December 8, 1861, Banyuls-sur-Mer, France—died September 27, 1944, near Banyuls-sur-Mer), French sculptor, painter, and printmaker whose monumental statues of female nudes display a concern for mass and rigorous formal analysis.

Maillol began his artistic career as a painter and tapestry designer; his early work reflected his great admiration for the Nabis, a group of artists in France whose work was composed typically of decorative patterns. Maillol was almost 40 years old when an eye disease forced him to give up tapestry weaving, and so he turned his attention to sculpture.

In his mature work, Maillol rejected the highly emotional sculpture of his contemporary Auguste Rodin, preferring to preserve and purify the sculptural tradition of Classical Greece and Rome. The Mediterranean (c. 1901) and Night (1902) show the emotional restraint, clear composition, and serene surfaces Maillol employed in his sculpture for the rest of his life. Most of his work depicts the mature female form, which he attempted to imbue with symbolic significance. He wanted to remove literary and psychological references from his sculptures; the resulting generalized figures emphasize form itself.

After 1910 Maillol was internationally famous and received a constant flood of commissions. Because of his strict economy of aesthetic means, he turned out the same subject repeatedly, sometimes varying little more than the title from work to work. Only in Action in Chains (1906) and The River (c. 1939–43) did he vary his basic formula and represent the human form in turbulent activity.

Maillol resumed painting in 1939, but sculpture remained his favourite medium. He also made many woodcut illustrations for the work of ancient poets such as Virgil and Ovid during the 1920s and ’30s, doing much to revive the art of the book. Though Maillol’s connection to the art of the past was strong, his interest in form and geometry helped pave the way for abstract sculptors such as Constantin Brancusi and Jean Arp.
 

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Aristide Maillol. La Nuit. 1909





Aristide Maillol. "Der Fluss". Hamburg, Kunsthalle. 1939





Aristide Maillol. "Der Fluss". Hamburg, Kunsthalle. 1939





Aristide Maillol. "Der Fluss". Hamburg, Kunsthalle. 1939





Aristide Maillol.  Brunnenstatue «La riviere». Talacker in Zürich





Aristide Maillol. Sculpture L'Air.




Aristide Maillol. Sculpture L'Air. The Netherlands. 1939





Aristide Maillol. Sculpture L'Air.





Aristide Maillol. Sculpture L'Air.





Aristide Maillol. Monument aux morts de Ceret. 1922.




Aristide Maillol. Monument aux morts de Elne situe derriere la cathedrale, le long des remparts.





Aristide Maillol. Nymph (Central Figure for "The Three Nymphs"). Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.

 
 

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