Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM,

AND ART NOUVEAU


PAINTING

SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

PHOTOGRAPHY

 


ARCHITECTURE

 

Art Nouveau

 


Paul Hankar
Ciamberlani Studio House in Brussels,
1897-1898

 

 

GUIMARD.

Despite the use of iron, Horta's interior presents no structural advance. And although they lie largely on the surface, the same devices could be translated readily into independent three-dimensional forms whose role was essentially sculptural. The entrances for the Metro (the Paris subway) designed in
1900 by
Hector Guimard (1867-1942) present just such a case (see fig. 1015). Like Horta, whose work he clearly admired, Guimard was a designer of universal scope, rather than an engineer, and it is this background in the applied arts that renders these stations appealing even today. The functional purpose is so thoroughly disguised by the fanciful forms that we readily overlook their role in providing safety and light, which comes from the plantlike posts springing like strange hybrids from the sidewalk.
 


1015. Hector Guimard. Metro Station, Paris. 1900

 


1015.
Hector Guimard. Metro Station, Paris

 


1015. Hector Guimard. Metro Station, Paris

 

 


Hector Guimard

Hector Guimard, (born March 10, 1867, Lyon, Fr.—died May 20, 1942, New York, N.Y., U.S.), architect, decorator, and furniture designer, probably the best-known French representative of Art Nouveau.

Guimard studied and later taught at the School of Decorative Arts and at the École des Beaux-Arts (“School of Fine Arts”) in Paris. Although much of his work is more engineering than architecture, he considered himself an architecte d’art. His Castel Béranger apartment building at 16 rue La Fontaine, Passy, Paris (1894–98), was one of the first Art Nouveau edifices outside Belgium, where the style originated. Several entrance structures (1898–1901) for the Paris Métro (subway), of cast iron in plantlike forms, are his best-known works. The Place de la Bastille station suggests Chinese pagoda architecture as well as Art Nouveau. The elevations and decorative ironwork of his apartment houses at 17–21 and 60 rue La Fontaine (1911) are tasteful and restrained. More bizarre, perhaps because its setting permitted a freer treatment, is the Castel Henriette in Sèvres (1903). Guimard also designed an Art Nouveau synagogue, at 10 rue Pavée, Paris (1913).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Hector Guimard.
"La Surprise" in Cabourg, France, 1903-1905
Roger-Viollet, Paris

 


Hector Guimard.
Metro entrance pavilion in Paris, 1900

 


The Porte Dauphine Metro station enclosure, designed by Hector Guimard in 1899

 

 


Henri Sauvage
Villa Majorelle, Nancy, France, 1898-1902


The developer Louis Majorelle, both a furniture designer and metal and glass worker, was an ideal partner for Sauvage. Floral themes permeate the entire building, whose four sides completely differ from one another in structure. One reason for this was the various ways sunlight entered the rooms, which Sauvage calculated respectively. Another astounding solution placed the service entrance on the street side.

 

 

MACKINTOSH.

Gaudi represents one extreme of Art Nouveau architecture. The Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) represents another. Although they stood at opposite poles, both strove for the same goala contemporary style independent of the past. Mackintosh's basic outlook is so close to the functionalism of Louis Sullivan that at first glance his work hardly seems to belong to Art Nouveau at all. The north facade of the Glasgow School of Art (fig. 1018) was designed as early as 1896, but might be mistaken for a building done 30 years later. Huge, deeply recessed studio windows have replaced the walls, leaving only a framework of massive, unadorned cut-stone surfaces except in the center bay. This bay, however, is "sculptured" in a style not unrelated to Gaudis, despite its preference for angles over curves. Another Art Nouveau feature is the wrought-iron grillwork (here with a minimum of ornament). Even more surprising than the exterior is the two-story library (fig. 1019), with its rectangular wooden posts and lintels supporting the balcony.

 


1018.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh.
North facade, Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, Scotland.
1896-1910

 


1019. Interior, Library. Glasgow School of Art

 

 


Charles Rennie Mackintosh

Charles Rennie Mackintosh, (born June 7, 1868, Glasgow—died Dec. 10, 1928, London), Scottish architect and designer who was prominent in the Arts and Crafts Movement in Great Britain.

He was apprenticed to a local architect, John Hutchinson, and attended evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art. In 1889 he joined the firm of Honeyman and Keppie, becoming a partner in 1904.

In collaboration with three other students, one of whom, Margaret Macdonald, became his wife in 1900, Mackintosh achieved an international reputation in the 1890s as a designer of unorthodox posters, craftwork, and furniture. In contrast to contemporary fashion his work was light, elegant, and original, as exemplified by four remarkable tearooms he designed in Glasgow (1896–1904) and other domestic interiors of the early 1900s.

Mackintosh’s chief architectural projects were the Glasgow School of Art (1896–1909), considered the first original example of Art Nouveau architecture in Great Britain; two unrealized projects—the 1901 International exhibition, Glasgow (1898), and “Haus eines Kunstfreundes” (1901); Windyhill, Kilmacolm (1899–1901), and Hill House, Helensburgh (1902); the Willow Tea Rooms, Glasgow (1904); and Scotland Street School (1904–06). Although all have some traditional characteristics, they reveal a mind of exceptional inventiveness and aesthetic perception. By 1914 he had virtually ceased to practice and thereafter devoted himself to watercolour painting.

Although Mackintosh was nearly forgotten for several decades, the late 20th century saw a revival of interest in his work. The stark simplicity of his furniture designs, in particular, appealed to contemporary taste, and reproductions of Mackintosh chairs and settees began to be manufactured. The Mackintosh House in Glasgow was reconstructed and opened to the public as a museum in the late 1970s.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Charles Rennie Mackintosh.
Hill House in Helensburgh, Dunbartonshire,
Scotland, 1902-1903
Entrance hall

 


Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Glasgow School of Art, Scotland, 1897-1909

 


Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Glasgow School of Art, Scotland, 1897-1909

 


Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Music Room, A House for an Art Lover

 
 

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