Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM,

AND ART NOUVEAU


PAINTING

SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

PHOTOGRAPHY

 


SCULPTURE

 

MEUNIER.

If Maillol sought to transcend his epoch, the Belgian Constantin Meunier (1831-1905) was thoroughly immersed in it. Politically and socially, Belgium exemplified all the tensions of the later nineteenth century: a conservative government, insensitive to the extremes of wealth and poverty in the country, seemed determined to suppress all protest or attempts at reform. The workers' movement had a late start in such a setting; it was not until 1885 that labor unions were strong enough to found the Belgian Workers' Party. By that time, many writers and artists had become partisans of social reform. Meunier began as a painter but soon began to model in clay. From 1885 until the end of his life, his output consisted almost entirely of sculpture. The change was surely motivated by his search for a more "heroic" medium. The heroism of labor, its pride and its pathos, was to be his theme as a sculptor. He treated it with a solemnity carried over from his earlier religious subjectsa concern that he shared with Vincent van Gogh, who had an unforgettable experience of human misery in the mining district of Belgium. His lifesize Bust of a Puddler (fig. 1010) has an air of pathos, of noble suffering such as befits a "martyr of labor." It also betrays Meunier's considerable debt to Rodin, for whom he always expressed the greatest admiration.



1010. CONSTANTIN MEUNTER. Bust of a Puddler. ń. 1885-90. Bronze, lifesize. Private collection
 

 


Constantin Meunier

Constantin Meunier, in full Constantin Emile Meunier (born April 12, 1831, Etterbeek, Belgium—died April 4, 1905, Ixelles), Belgian sculptor and painter, one of the principal social-realist artists of the late 19th century in Europe.

Meunier began his career as a sculptor, but during the years 1857–84 he pursued only painting. After visiting some mines and factories, Meunier demonstrated in his paintings a humanitarian interest in labourers, focusing particularly on the miners of the Borinage, dockworkers of Antwerp, metalworkers, and women labourers.

In 1882, under the sponsorship of the Belgian government, Meunier went to Spain, where he produced paintings primarily on religious subjects. After returning to Belgium, he began to explore in bronze sculpture the social themes that had dominated his earlier paintings. The empathy and respect with which he viewed his subjects (e.g., The Fire-Damp Explosion, 1887) renders Meunier’s work universal rather than political. His notable works include The Docker (1905) and a large sculptural group, Monument to Labour, which was installed in the Place de Trooz, Brussels, in 1930.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Constantin Meunier. Harbour worker. Stockholm, Sweden





Constantin Meunier. Puddler.
1884-1888.
Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels, Belgium





Constantin Meunier. The damp explosion; a mother discovers her son among the dead"
1889
Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels, Belgium





Constantin Meunier. The Horse at the Pond. 1899





Constantin Meunier. Buste d'Emmanuel Chabrier.




Constantin Meunier. Le Travailleur. Groningen




Constantin Meunier. The Mower. 1892





Constantin Meunier. Le Marin.
1890





Constantin Meunier.
Le semeur.
1896





Constantin Meunier. The Stonecutter





Monument au Travail, Bruxelles. Sculptures de Constantin Meunier.




Constantin Meunier. Monument au Travail, Bruxelles




Constantin Meunier. Monument au Travail, Bruxelles




Constantin Meunier. Monument au Travail, Bruxelles




Constantin Meunier. Monument au Travail, Bruxelles

 
 

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