Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM,

AND ART NOUVEAU


PAINTING

SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

PHOTOGRAPHY

 


SCULPTURE

 

BARLACH.


Ernst Barlach (1870-1938), another important German sculptor who reached maturity in the years before World War I, seems the very opposite of Lehmbruck. He is a "Gothic primitivist," and more akin to Munch than to the Western Symbolist tradition. What Gauguin had experienced in Brittany and the tropics, Barlach found by going to Russia: the simple humanity of a preindustrial age. His figures, such as Man Drawing a Sword (fig. 1013), embody elementary emotionswrath, fear, griefthat seem imposed upon them by-invisible presences. When they act, they are like somnambulists, unaware of their own impulses. Human beings, to Barlach, are humble creatures at the mercy of forces beyond their control; they are never masters of their fate. Characteristically, these figures do not fully emerge from the material substance (often, as here, a massive block of wood) of which they are made. Their clothing is like a hard chrysalis that hides the body, as in medieval sculpture. Barlach's art has a range that is severely restricted in both form and emotion, yet its mute intensity within these limits is not easily forgotten.
 


1013.
Ernst Barlach. Man Drawing a Sword. 1911. Wood, height 78.7 cm. Private collection

 

 


Ernst Barlach

Ernst Barlach, (born January 2, 1870, Wedel, Germany—died October 24, 1938, Güstrow, Germany), outstanding sculptor of the Expressionist movement whose style has often been called “modern Gothic.” Barlach also experimented with graphic art and playwriting, and his work in all media is notable for its preoccupation with the sufferings of humanity.

Barlach studied art in Hamburg, Germany, and later in Dresden and Paris. Influenced early in his career by Jugendstil, Germany’s Art Nouveau style, he vacillated between pursuing sculpture and the decorative arts. In 1906 he traveled to Russia, where the strong bodies and expressive faces of the peasants stimulated his commitment to sculpture and to the development of his mature style, which characteristically features bulky, monumental figures in heavy drapery. In works such as The Solitary One (1911), details of the figure are eliminated and the massive forms seem ready to explode with bound energy. Barlach achieved a rough-hewn quality by preferring wood, the material used in late Gothic sculpture. Even when he worked with other, more-contemporary materials, as in his bronze Death (1925), he often emulated the raw quality of wood sculpture to achieve a more brutal effect.

Starting about 1910, Barlach began to pursue a career as a dramatist. His most notable dramas, Der tote Tag (1912; “The Dead Day”) and Der Findling (1922; “The Foundling”), combine symbolism and realism to present the tragic futility of existence. He often created woodcuts and lithographs to accompany his written works.

Barlach achieved great fame in the 1920s and early 1930s, when he executed, among other works, the celebrated war memorials in Magdeburg and Hamburg and the religious figures for the Church of St. Katherine in Lübeck (all in Germany). Although his work was removed from German museums under the Nazi regime and categorized as “degenerate art,” after World War II his talent was once again recognized. Barlach’s former studio in Güstrow, Germany, was made into a museum, and the Ernst Barlach House in Hamburg exhibits a large collection of his sculptures, drawings, and prints.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Ernst Barlach. The Magdeburger Ehrenmal.
War Memorial
1918






Ernst Barlach. Der Schwebende  im Dom zu Gustrow
1927





Ernst Barlach. Schwebender Engel
1927


 




Ernst Barlach. Der Berserker. 1910





Ernst Barlach. Tanzende Alte. 1920.
Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig





Ernst Barlach. Der singende Mann. 1928





Ernst Barlach. Der singende Klosterschuler. 1931.
Barlach-Grabmal in Ratzeburg

 


Ernst Barlach. The Terrible Year 1937.





Ernst Barlach. Crouching old woman.
1933





Ernst Barlach. Beggar woman with child.
1907





Ernst Barlach. Woman in the wind.
1931





Ernst Barlach. Procuress II.
1920





Ernst Barlach. Frierende Alte.
1937





Ernst Barlach. Der Racher. 1922





Ernst Barlach. Das Wiedersehen. 1926





Ernst Barlach. Frierendes Madchen. 1917





Ernst Barlach. Die Flamme. 1934





Ernst Barlach. Der Asket. 1925





Ernst Barlach. Sorgende Frau. 1910

 
 

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