Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
 

SCULPTURE BEFORE WORLD WAR I
SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
SCULPTURE SINCE 1945 - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 
 


SCULPTURE

 


SCULPTURE SINCE 1945

 


Constructions and Assemblage


Constructions present a difficult problem. If we agree to restrict the term "sculpture" to objects made of a single substance, then we must put "assemblages" (that is, constructions using mixed mediums) in a class of their own. This is probably a useful distinction, because of their kinship with ready-mades. But what of Picasso's Bull's Head
? Is it not an instance of assemblage, and have we not called it a piece of sculpture? Actually, there is no inconsistency here. The Bull's Head is a bronze cast, even though we cannot tell this by looking at a photograph of it. Had Picasso wished to display the actual handlebars and bicycle seat, he would surely have done so. Since he chose to have them cast in bronze, this must have been because he wanted to "dematerialize" the ingredients of the work by having them reproduced in a single material. Apparently he felt it necessary to clarify the relation of image to reality in this waythe sculptor's wayand he used the same procedure whenever he worked with ready-made objects.

Nevertheless, we must not apply the "single-material" rule too strictly. Calder's mobiles, for instance, often combine metal, string, wood, and other substances. Yet they do not strike us as being assemblages, because these materials are not made to assert their separate identities. Conversely, an object may deserve to be called an assemblage even though composed of essentially homogeneous material. Such is often true of works known as "junk sculpture," made of fragments of old machinery, parts of wrecked automobiles, and similar discards, which constitute a broad class that can be called sculpture, assemblage, or environment, depending on the work itself.




Robert Rauschenberg

Robert Rauschenberg (born
1925) pioneered assemblage as early as the mid-1950s. Much like a composer making music out of the noises of everyday life, he constructed works of art from the trash of urban civilization. Odalisk (fig. 1158) is a box covered with a miscellany of pasted imagescomic strips, photos, clippings from picture magazinesheld together only by the skein of brushstrokes the artist has superimposed on them. The box perches on a foot improbably anchored to a pillow on a wooden platform and is surmounted by a stuffed chicken.

The title, a witty blend of "odalisque" and "obelisk," refers both to the nude girls among the collage of clippings as modern "harem girls" and to the shape of the construction as a whole, for the box shares its vertically and slightly tapering sides with real obelisks. Rauschenberg's unlikely "monument" has at least some qualities in common with its predecessors: compactness and self-sufficiency. We will recognize in this improbable juxtaposition the same ironic intent as the ready-mades of Duchamp, whom Rauschenberg had come to know well in New York.
 


1158.
Robert Rauschenberg. Odalisk. 1955-58.
Construction, 205.7 x 63.5 x 63.5 cm.
Museum Luckvig, Cologne

 

 


Robert Rauschenberg

Robert Rauschenberg, original name Milton Rauschenberg (born Oct. 22, 1925, Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.—died May 12, 2008, Captiva Island, Fla.), American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the Pop art movement.

Rauschenberg knew little about art until he visited an art museum during World War II while serving in the U.S. Navy. He studied painting at the Kansas City Art Institute in 1946–47, changed his name from Milton to Robert because it sounded more artistic, and studied briefly in Europe. During 1948–50 he studied at Black Mountain College, North Carolina, under the Bauhaus master Josef Albers and at the Art Students League in New York City.

Rauschenberg’s first paintings in the early 1950s comprised a series of all-white and all-black surfaces underlaid with wrinkled newspaper. In subsequent works he began to explore the possibilities of making art from such objects as Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades, and stuffed birds, calling them “combine” paintings. In 1955 Rauschenberg became associated with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, first as a designer of costumes and sets and later as a technical director. He also produced theatrical pieces in collaboration with composer John Cage.

From the late 1950s Rauschenberg experimented with the use of newspaper and magazine photographs in his paintings, devising a process using solvent to transfer images directly onto the canvas. About 1962 he borrowed from Andy Warhol the silk-screen stencil technique for applying photographic images to large expanses of canvas, reinforcing the images and unifying them compositionally with broad strokes of paint reminiscent of Abstract Expressionist brushwork. These works draw on themes from modern American history and popular culture and are notable for their sophisticated compositions and the spatial relations of the objects depicted in them. During this period his painting became more purely graphic (e.g., Bicycle [1963]) than the earlier combines. By the 1970s, however, he had turned to prints on silk, cotton, and cheesecloth, as well as to three-dimensional constructions of cloth, paper, and bamboo in an Oriental manner.

Among Rauschenberg’s preoccupations from the 1970s to the 1990s were lithography and other printmaking techniques. He continued to incorporate imagery from the commercial print media but began to rely more heavily on his own photography. Some of his works were influenced by visits with artists in such countries as China, Japan, and Mexico.
 

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Robert Rauschenberg. Canyon


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Canyon


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Cardboard II


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Minutiae


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Untitled


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Untitled


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Rebus


 


Robert Rauschenberg. The Bed. The Object Transformed


 


Robert Rauschenberg.
Who Sleeps Eats (Homage to Rauschenberg)


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Monogram


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Green Shirt


 


Robert Rauschenberg. Riding Bikes
1998, Berlin


 


Robert Rauschenberg. BMW 635 CSi Art Car





Robert Rauschenberg. Dylaby





Robert Rauschenberg. La Cama





Robert Rauschenberg. Mercado negro





Robert Rauschenberg. Yoicks

 
 

Discuss Art

Please note: site admin does not answer any questions. This is our readers discussion only.

 
| privacy