Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES

 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
 

SCULPTURE BEFORE WORLD WAR I
SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
SCULPTURE SINCE 1945 - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 
 


SCULPTURE

 


SCULPTURE SINCE 1945

 


Constructions and Assemblage




Barbara Chase.

Nevelson's success has encouraged other American women to become sculptors. Barbara Chase (born
1939), a prize-winning author who now lives in Paris, belongs to a generation of remarkable black women who have made significant contributions to several of the arts at once. She is heir to a unique American tradition. It is a paradox that whereas black women never carve in traditional African cultures, in America they found their first artistic outlet in sculpture. They were attracted to it by the example set by Harriet Hosmer at a time when abolitionism and feminism were closely allied liberal causes.

Chase received a traditional training in her native Philadelphia, the first center of minority artists. In search of an artistic identity, she then turned to African art for inspiration. Her monumental sculpture makes an indelible impression. In Confessions for Myself (fig. 1161) she has conjured up a demonic archetype of awesome power. Its sources can be found in cast bronze figures from Benin and in the Senufo tribe's carved wooden masks, which are sometimes embellished with textiles. From them she developed her highly individual aesthetic, which utilizes a combination of bronze that has been painted black and braided fiber to express a distinctly ethnic sensibility and feminist outlook.



1161. Barbara Chase. Confessions for Myself.
19
72.
Bronze, painted black, and black wool,
13.05 m x 1.02 m x 30.5 cm.
University Art Museum, University of California at Berkeley






Eva Hesse.

A special case is formed by Eva Hesse
(1936-1970). Although her work stands on its own, she had just begun to hit her stride when her life was cut short by cancer. Moreover, it is impossible to separate her work from her life, which is known in considerable detail, thanks to her diaries and many interviews. While not a feminist, she has been treated as a heroine by the women's liberation movement because of her inner and artistic struggles. In many respects she represented the very prototype of the feminist artist, one who was later to provide inspiration to others. Her sculpture, too, defies convenient categories. It began to develop rapidly only in 1966 as the result of a stay in Germany, where she was influenced by Joseph Beuys and his Zero Group. For her as for Beuys, art had healing powers through its revelatory function, only they were private rather than social in nature. Her artistic milieu was nevertheless the New York circle of Minimalists that included her closest friends. Her work derives its best features from both, but restates matters in an entirely individual way.

To look at Hesse's sculpture is to see a central mystery unveiled through its often paradoxical, mythic character. Thus Accession II (fig. 1162) has aptly been described as "suggesting a stylistic collision between one of Donald Judd's minimalist aluminum boxes and Meret Oppenheim's Surrealist fur-covered teacup of 1936." (Compare figs. 1147 and 1135.) Aesthetically it has the spareness of Minimalist art, but with infinitely richer content, for Hesse has reinvested her industrial object with personal meaning. It at once possesses all the enigma of Pandora's box and the piquancy of an erotic fetish, a quality found throughout her mature work, which is laden with unmistakable sexual overtones.


1162. Eva Hesse. Accession II. 1967.
Steel and rubber tubes, 78 x 78 x 78 cm. The Detroit Institute of Arts
 

 


Eva Hesse

Eva Hesse, (born Jan. 11, 1936, Hamburg, Ger.ódied May 29, 1970, New York, N.Y., U.S.), German-born U.S. sculptor.

She arrived in New York City with her family in 1939, fleeing the Nazi regime. She attended the Pratt Institute, Cooper Union, and Yale University. In 1964 she married and moved briefly to Germany and began making sculpture, developing a style featuring sensuous shapes and unconventional materials (including rubber tubing, synthetic resins, cord, cloth, and wire). In the 1960s she exhibited throughout the U.S. and achieved critical acclaim; her work was sometimes asssociated with Minimalism. In 1969 she underwent the first of three unsuccessful operations for a brain tumour. Her influence since her death has been widespread.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Eva Hesse. Vertiginous Detour. 1966





Eva Hesse. Untitled





Eva Hesse. Untitled




Eva Hesse. Untitled




Eva Hesse.
Contingent




Eva Hesse. Untitled




Eva Hesse. Untitled

 
 

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