Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
 

SCULPTURE BEFORE WORLD WAR I
SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
SCULPTURE SINCE 1945 - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 
 


SCULPTURE

 


SCULPTURE SINCE 1945

 


Environments and Installations


A number of artists associated with Pop Art have also turned to assemblage because they find the flat surface of the canvas too confining. In order to bridge the gap between image and reality, they often introduce three-dimensional objects into their pictures. Some even construct full-scale models of everyday things and real-life situations, utilizing every conceivable kind of material in order to embrace the entire range of their physical environment, including the people, in their work. These "environments" combine the qualities of painting, sculpture, collage, and stagecraft. Being three-dimensional, they can claim to be considered sculpture, but the claim rests on a convention which Pop Art itself has helped to make obsolete. According to this convention, a flat or smoothly curved work of art covered with colors is a painting (or, if the surface is not covered, a drawing). Everything else is sculpture, whether or not the surface is colored and regardless of the material, size, or degree of relief
unless we can enter it, in which case we call it architecture.

Our habit of using the term "sculpture" in this sense is only a few hundred years old. Antiquity and the Middle Ages had separate terms to denote various kinds of sculpture according to the materials and working processes involved, but no single term that covered them all. Maybe it is time to revive such distinctions and to modify the all-inclusive definition of sculpture by acknowledging "environments" as a separate category, distinct from both painting and sculpture in its use of heterogeneous materials ("mixed mediums") and blurring of the borderline between image and reality. The differences are underscored by "installations," which are expansions of environments into room-size settings.




George Segal.


George Segal (born
1924) creates three-dimensional lifesize pictures showing people and objects in everyday situations. The subject of Cinema (fig. 1163) is ordinary enough to be instantly recognizable: a man changing the letters on a movie-theater marquee. Yet the relation of image and reality is far more subtle and complex than the obvious authenticity of the scene suggests. The man's figure is cast from a live model by a technique of Segal's invention and retains its ghostly white plaster surface.Thus it is one crucial step removed from our world of daily experience, and the neon-lit sign has been carefully designed to complement and set off the shadowed figure. Moreover, the scene is brought down from its natural context, high above the entrance to the theater, where we might have glimpsed it in passing, and is presented at eye level, in isolation, so that we grasp it completely for the first time.
 


1163. George Segal. Cinema. 1963.
Plaster, metal, plexiglass, and fluorescent light,
3
m x 2.4 m x 77 cm.
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York

 

 


George Segal

born Nov. 26, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.
died June 9, 2000, South Brunswick, N.J.


American sculptor of monochromatic, cast plaster figures often situated in environments of mundane furnishings and objects.

Segal was educated at the Cooper Union, Pratt Institute of Design, New York University (B.S., 1950), and Rutgers University (M.F.A., 1963) and began his artistic career as an abstract painter. In 1958 he started creating sculptures from chicken wire and plaster and two years later turned to plastercasts, often using family members and friends as models. Though he was associated with members of the burgeoning Pop art movement in the late 1950s, Segal's sculptures, which were frequently outfitted with the bland commercial props of the Pop idiom, are distinguished from that characteristically ironic movement by a mute, ghostly anguish. His casting technique, in which the live model is wrapped in strips of plaster-soaked cheesecloth, imparts a rough texture and a minimum of surface detail to the figures,thus heightening the sense of anonymity and isolation. Notable works include The Truck (1966), The Laundromat (1966–67), and Hot Dog Stand (1978).
 

 

 


George Segal. Circus Acrobats. 1981


George Segal. Airport (detail)
 


George Segal. Couple on a Bed

 


George Segal. Embracing Couple

 


George Segal. Girl Emerging from The Wall

 


George Segal. Girl in Robe II

 


George Segal. Girl on Red Wicker Couch

 


George Segal. Her Arms Crossing His

 


George Segal. Picasso's Chair
1973

 


George Segal. Woman Sitting on Bed
1996

 


George Segal. La carniceria

 


George Segal. Untitled

 


George Segal. Untitled


 


George Segal. Depression Bread Line

 


George Segal. Abraham’s Farewell to Ishmael
1987

 


George Segal. Woman in Armchair

 


George Segal. Blue Girl on Black Bed. 1976


 


George Segal. Caressing Hands

 


George Segal. The Blue Robe


George Segal. Untitled

 


George Segal. Untitled


 


George Segal. Abraham and Isaac
1978

 


George Segal. Untitled

 


George Segal. Holocaust Memorial

 


George Segal. Holocaust Memorial

 


George Segal. Holocaust Memorial

 


George Segal. John Chamberlain Working

 


George Segal. The Execution

 


George Segal. Walk - Don't Walk

 


George Segal. Woman on a Bed

 


George Segal. Bus Stop

 


George Segal. Cezanne Still Life #4

 


George Segal. Depression


 


George Segal. Couple in Open Doorway

 


George Segal. Couple Against A Grey Brick Wall

 


George Segal. Woman Seated on a Chair

 


George Segal. The curtain


 


George Segal. Italian Restaurant

 
 

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