Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES

 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
 

SCULPTURE BEFORE WORLD WAR I
SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
SCULPTURE SINCE 1945 - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 
 


SCULPTURE

 


SCULPTURE SINCE 1945

 

POST-MODERNIS

 


Luciano Fabro.



Traditional sculpture has such a little role in postmodernism that it seems almost out of place when it does make an appearance. A rare example is The Birth of Venus (fig.
1254) by Luciano Fabro (born 1936), an original member of the Arte Povera movement who works in a wide variety of styles and techniques. The roughed-out "figure" is attached like a misshapen cocoon to the eroded capital atop the smooth column drums of contrasting color. What might she look like? Unlike Michelangelo's Captive, Fabro's Venus remains imprisoned within the marble forever, with no more than the barest outlines to hint at her possible shape. Curiously enough, the column more closely resembles a statue, the Archaic Greek "Peplos" Kore in figure 155, than does this strange appendage. Although some would deny it, The Birth of Venus is clearly a post-modern work. What makes it so is the improbable juxtaposition, which is a knowing misquotation of the past. Yet the ironic takeoff is accomplished with all the gravity of an artist for whom sculpture is both a living tradition and a dead language to be reviveda serious business that nevertheless does not preclude an element of irreverence for this vestigial relic. The real surprise is that the piece is so effective, for in its muteness it contains a spellbinding mystery.




1254. Luciano Fabro. The Birth of Venus. 1992.
Onyx and marble, 263 x 70 x 118 cm.
Courtesy of Galerie Durand-Dessert, Paris


 

 



Luciano Fabro

Luciano Fabro, (born Nov. 20, 1936, Turin, Italy—died June 22, 2007, Milan, Italy), Italian artist who was grouped with the avant-garde Arte Povera movement, which emphasized “poor,” or raw, materials, though Fabro never fully accepted the characterization. Fabro’s best-known sculptural works included Il buco (The Hole, 1963), a mirror with part of the reflective backing scraped off; Sisifo (Sisyphus, 1994), in which a cylindrical piece of marble leaves a pattern when it is rolled through a rectangle of flour; his Piedi (Feet) series, which include paws and claws made of such materials as marble and bronze; and a series of reliefs in the shape of the Italian peninsula. Fabro was the subject of a 25-year retrospective at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1992, and in 2001 his work was featured in the traveling exhibition “Zero to Infinity: Arte Povera, 1962–1972.”

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Luciano Fabro. Demetra (Demeter)
1987




Luciano Fabro. Clotheshanger of the North
1981





Luciano Fabro. Italia d'oro (Golden Italy)
1971





Luciano Fabro. La doppia faccia del cielo
1986)





Luciano Fabro. Foot
1968





Luciano Fabro. Computer
1990





Nam June Paik.

Sculpture today descends mainly from the work of Joseph Beuys, who, with Andy Warhol and John Baldessari, may be regarded as the patron saint of post-modern art
. The notes and photographs that document Beuys' performances and installations hardly do them justice. His chief legacy today lies perhaps in the stimulation he provided his many students and collaborators. Among them was Nam June Paik (1932-2006). The sophisticated video displays of the Korean-born Paik fall outside the scope of this book; but his installation with a Buddha contemplating himself on television (fig. 1255) is a memorable image uniquely appropriate to the Information Age, in which the fascination with electronic media has replaced transcendent spirituality as the focus of life.



1255. Nam June Paik. TV Buddha. 1974.
Video installation with statue.
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam


 

 



Nam June Paik

Nam June Paik, (born July 20, 1932, Seoul, Korea [now South Korea]—died Jan. 29, 2006, Miami Beach, Fla., U.S.), Korean-born composer, performer, and artist who was from the early 1960s one of postmodern art’s most provocative and innovative figures.

Paik studied art and music history at the University of Tokyo before moving to West Germany, where he continued his studies (1956–58) at the University of Munich. In the late 1950s, while working in West German Radio’s electronic music studio in Cologne, Paik met American avant-garde composer John Cage, whose inventive compositions and unorthodox ideas had a major influence on the budding artist. He also became involved during this time with the group Fluxus.

Paik’s exhibition “Exposition of Music/Electronic Television,” held in Wuppertal, W.Ger., in 1963, marked the first time anyone had used video as an artistic medium. The next year Paik moved to New York City and began a fruitful collaboration with cellist and performance artist Charlotte Moorman. In a well-publicized incident in 1967, Paik and a bare-breasted Moorman, playing Paik’s Cello Sonata No. 1 for Adults Only, were arrested for public indecency at the opening of his four-part Opéra Sextronique. In the following years Paik made a number of videos, including Global Groove (1973), and produced video sculptures and installations. Among the most notable of these were TV Buddha (1974), TV Garden (1974–78), and Family of Robot (1986). In 1982 the Whitney Museum of American Art held a large-scale retrospective of Paik’s work. Starting with Good Morning, Mr. Orwell (1984), he produced a number of groundbreaking live satellite-broadcast shows that among other things emphasized the need for communication between the East and the West through the exchange of art and culture. He created The More the Better (1988), 1,003 television sets playing videos from a variety of artists on Korean subjects, for the Olympic Games held in Seoul. In 1996 he suffered a stroke. Paik’s video opera performance Coyote 3 (1997), at the Anthology Film Archives in New York, featured a disconcerting mixture of multiple television screens, laser lights, and smoke. From the late 1970s Paik had divided his time between the United States and Germany, where he taught at the Düsseldorf State Academy of Art.



Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 





Nam June Paik. Video Flag





Nam June Paik.
Skulptur Pre-Bell-Man vor dem Museum fur Kommunikation.
Frankfurt am Main






Nam June Paik.
Family of Robot: Baby, 1986






Nam June Paik. Untitled





Nam June Paik. Electronic Superhighway





Nam June Paik. Hacker Newbie





Nam June Paik. In Flux House




Nam June Paik. TV Cello
1971





Nam June Paik. Global Encoder



Nam June Paik. Techno Buddha




Nam June Paik. The Chase Video Matrix (1992) at MetroTech, Brooklyn




Nam June Paik. Vidiot Surfer



Robert Longo

The work of Robert Longo (born
1953) is the direct outgrowth of his experience in performance art. Longo addresses disturbing issues in his large tableaux. These usually consist of wall pieces incorporating a variety of mediums, sometimes sound as well, but may also extend into space, so that they fall somewhere between assemblage and environments. Notable for their formal elegance, they are produced with the aid of collaborators, though the conception generally

remains his. The effect produced by these conflicting elements can be unsettling, in keeping with the provocative subject matter. Longo's characteristic theme is violence and alienation in the artificial world of the urban middle class. The figure in Now Everybody (fig. 1256) is seen in a pose inspired by discotheques that, upon closer inspection, is strangely contorted, as if he had been shot or struck by an unseen force. He is engaged, we realize, in the universal dance of death that belies his sheltered life. Despite Longo's attempt to give the subject a larger meaning, it seems strangely characteristic of the 1980s, a decade memorable chiefly for its shallowness.



1256. Robert Longo. Now Everybody (For R. W Fassbinder). 1982-83.
Charcoal, graphite, and ink on paper, 2.4 x 4.8 m; cast bronze, 201 x 71 x 114 cm.
National Gallery, Budapest


 

 



Robert Longo

Robert Longo (born January 7, 1953) is an American painter and sculptor. Longo became famous in the 1980s for his "Men in the Cities" series, which depicted sharply dressed businessmen writhing in contorted emotion.

Early life and education
Robert Longo was born in 1953 in Brooklyn, New York and raised in Long Island. He had a childhood fascination with mass media: movies, television, magazines, and comic books, which continue to influence his art.

Longo began college at the University of North Texas, in the town of Denton, but left before getting a degree. He later studied sculpture under Leonda Finke, who encouraged him to pursue a career in the visual arts. In 1972, Longo received a grant to study at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, Italy. Upon his return to New York, Longo enrolled at Buffalo State College, where he received a BFA in 1975. While at Buffalo State, he studied under, and was likely influenced by art professor Joseph Piccillo. At this time he was associated with artist Cindy Sherman, who was also studying art at Buffalo State.

While in college, Longo and his friends established an avant garde art gallery in their co-op building, the Essex Art Center, which was originally a converted ice factory; the gallery became Hallwalls Contemporary Art Center. Through his gallery efforts, Longo met many local and New York City artists. Longo eventually moved to New York City to join the underground art scene of the 1970s.

Artwork
Although he studied sculpture, drawing remained Longo's favorite form of self-expression. However, the sculptural influence pervades his drawing technique, as Longo's "portraits" have a distinctive chiseled line that seems to give the drawings a three-dimensional quality. Longo uses graphite like clay, molding it to create images like the writhing, dancing figures in his seminal "Men in the Cities" series. One drawing from this series was used as the album cover to Glenn Branca's album "The Ascension".

Working on themes of power and authority, Longo produced a series of blackened American flags ("Black Flags" 1989–91) as well as oversized hand guns ("Bodyhammers" 1993–95). From 1995 to 1996 he worked on his "Magellan" project, 366 drawings (one per day) that formed an archive of the artist's life and surrounding cultural images. "Magellan" was followed by 2002's "Freud Drawings", which reinterpreted Edmund Engelman's famous documentary images of Sigmund Freud's flat, moments before his flight from the Nazis. In 2002 and 2004 he presented "Monsters", Bernini-esque renderings of massive breaking waves and "The Sickness of Reason", baroque renderings of atomic bomb blasts. "Monsters" was included in the 2004 Whitney Biennial.

Longo had major retrospective exhibitions at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1989 and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago in 1990, a touring exhibition throughout Japan in 1995, and more recently a "Survey Exhibition 1980-2009," at Musee D'Art Moderne Et D'Art Contemporain de Nice in France in 2009 and at Museu Colecção Berardo in Lisbon, Portugal in 2010.

To create works such as Barbara and Ralph, Longo projects photographs of his subjects onto paper and traces the figures in graphite, removing all details of the background. After he records the basic contours, his long-time illustrator, Diane Shea, works on the figure for about a week, filling in the details. Next, Longo goes back into the drawing, using graphite and charcoal to provide "all the cosmetic work".[3] Longo continues to work on the drawing, making numerous adjustments until it is completed about a week later.

 

 



Robert Longo.
Untitled #33 (From the Men in the City Series)
1982
charcoal, graphite & ink on paper

 
 

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