Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES

 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
 

SCULPTURE BEFORE WORLD WAR I
SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
SCULPTURE SINCE 1945 - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 
 


SCULPTURE

 


SCULPTURE SINCE 1945

 

POST-MODERNIS

 


INSTALLATIONS.

Why have installations become such a focal point of post-modernism? They may be regarded as the ideal manifestations of the deconstructionist idea of the world as "text," whose intent can never be fully known even by its author so that "readers" are free to interpret it in light of their own understanding. The installation artist creates a separate world that is a self-contained universe, at once alien and familiar. Left to their own devices to wander this microcosm, viewers bring their own understanding to bear on the experience in the form of memories that are elicited by the novel environment. In effect, then, they help to write the "text." In themselves, installations are empty vessels: they may contain anything that "author" and "reader" wish to put into them. Hence, they serve as ready vehicles for expressing social, political, or personal concerns, especially those that satisfy the post-modern agenda. The installation as text can become deliberately literal: it is often linked to a text that makes the program explicit.



Ilya Kabakov.

Russian artists have a special genius for installations. Cut off for decades from contemporary art in the West, they developed mostly crude, provincial styles of painting and sculpture. Yet that very isolation allowed them to cultivate a unique brand of Conceptual Art that in turn provided the foundation for their installations. The first to gain international acclaim was Ilya Kabakov (born
1933), who now keeps his studio in New York. "Ten Characters" was a suite of rooms like those of a seedy communal apartment, each inhabited by an imaginary person possessed of an "unusual idea, one all-absorbing passion belonging to him alone." The most spectacular was The Man Who Flew into Space from His Apartment (fig. 1257): he achieves his dream of flying into space by being hurled from a catapult suspended by springs while the ceiling and roof are blown off at the precise moment of launching. Like the other rooms, it was accompanied by a text of Dos-toyevskian darkness written by the artist, reflecting the Russian talent for story-telling. The installation was more than an elaborate realization of this bizarre fantasy, however. The extravagant clutter was a sardonic commentary encapsulating a wealth of observations that reflect the peculiar dilemmas of life in the former Soviet Unionits tawdry reality, its broken dreams, the pervasive role of central authority.



1257. Ilya Kabakov. The Man Who Flew into Space from His Apartment,
from "Ten Characters."
1981-88.
Mixed-media installation at Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York.


 

 



Ilya Kabakov

Ilya Kabakov, Russian (1933) is an American conceptual artist of Russian-Jewish origin, born in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine. He worked for thirty years in Moscow, from the 1950s until the late 1980s. He now lives and works on Long Island. He was named by Art News as one of the "ten greatest living artists" in 2000.

Throughout his forty-year plus career, Kabakov has produced a wide range of paintings, drawings, installations, and theoretical texts not to mention extensive memoirs that track his life from his childhood to the early 1980s. In recent years, he has created installations that evoked the visual culture of the Soviet Union, though this theme has never been the exclusive focus of his work. Unlike some underground Soviet artists, Kabakov joined the Union of Soviet Artists in 1959, and became a full-member in 1965. This was a prestigious position in the USSR and it brought with it substantial material benefits. In general, Kabakov illustrated children's books for 36 months each year and then spent the remainder of his time on his own projects.

By using fictional biographies, many inspired by his own experiences, Kabakov has attempted to explain the birth and death of the Soviet Union, which he claims to be the first modern society to disappear. In the Soviet Union, Kabakov discovers elements common to every modern society, and in doing so he examines the rift between capitalism and communism. Rather than depict the Soviet Union as a failed Socialist project defeated by Western economics, Kabakov describes it as one utopian project among many, capitalism included. By reexamining historical narratives and perspectives, Kabakov delivers a message that every project, whether public or private, important or trivial, has the potential to fail due to the potentially authoritarian will to power.
 

 

 


Ilya Kabakov. School No. 6
1993


 


Ilya Kabakov. School No. 6
1993


 


Ilya Kabakov. School No. 6
1993


 


Ilya Kabakov. The fallen Chandelier


 


Ilya Kabakov. Installation


 


Ilya Kabakov. The Boat of My Life


 


Ilya Kabakov. The Boat of My Life


 


Ilya Kabakov. Installation


 


Ilya Kabakov. Installation


 


Ilya Kabakov. The Toilet in the Corner


 


Ilya Kabakov. Het toilet
1992


 


Ilya Kabakov. The Toilet
1992


 


Ilya Kabakov. L'homme qui s'est envolй dans l'espace depuis son appartement


 


Ilya Kabakov. Unaufgehangtes Bild
1982-1992



 


Ilya Kabakov. Vor dem Abendessen
1988



 


Ilya Kabakov. Red Pavillon
1993



 


Ilya Kabakov. Installation


 


Ilya Kabakov.
The Man Who Flew Into Space From His Apartment
1968-1996


 


Ilya Kabakov.
The Man Who Flew Into Space From His Apartment
1968-1996


 


Ilya Kabakov.
The Man Who Flew Into Space From His Apartment
1968-1996


 


Ilya Kabakov. The window III
1997


 


Ilya Kabakov. The Interesting Book
2002


 


Ilya Kabakov. Wings (How to make yourself better or how to become an angel)
1999


 


Ilya Kabakov. Battle in the communal apartment
2000


 


Ilya Kabakov. The order is the main thing
2002


 


Ilya Kabakov. The drinking fountain
2003


 


Ilya Kabakov. The Eternal Emigrant
2003-2005


 


Ilya Kabakov. Opera Saint Francois d´Assis
2002


 


Ilya Kabakov.
How to Meet an Angel
2000


 


Ilya Kabakov. How to Meet an Angel
(Detail)

2000


 


Ilya Kabakov. How to Meet an Angel
(Detail)

2000

 

 


Ann Hamilton.


Kabakov was inspired in part by the example of Beuys, who was also an influence on the young American installation artist Ann Hamilton (born
1956). Her work is about loss, be it from personal tragedy or distortion of a natural relationship. Unlike Beuys, she seeks only to raise issues, not to resolve them, a matter that is left to the visitor. Yet she uses many of the same means: her installations involve all of the senses through the use of unusual materials, often in disturbing ways, in order to present a paradox that lies at the center of each work. She exercises these choices through a train of free association until the idea crystallizes. Her installations are labor-intensiveobsessively, even ritualistically, so. Thus parallel lines for the 1991 Sao Paulo Bienal (figs. 1258 and 1259) began with assistants coating the walls of one gallery with soot from burning candles, then attaching sequentially numbered copper tags to the floor (an interest in seriality that is basic to Conceptual Art). Finally, a huge bundle of candles was placed in the room, so as to dominate it. A second room, covered entirely in the same copper tags, held nothing but two glass library cases containing turkey carcasses that were slowly devoured by beetles. This assault on the viewer's sensesand sensibilitieswas intended to pose a number of questions. What is collected, why, and by whom? What is the moral difference between showing candles made by people from the fat of dead animals and exhibiting a dead bird with beetles carrying out their natural role as scavengers? Although death is treated matter-of-factly, there is a strangely mournful air to the entire installation, which invites us to ponder these matters and to arrive at our own conclusions.



1258, 1259. Ann Hamilton.  parallel lines. Installation at the Sao Paulo Bienal,
September-December 1991. Mixed media. Courtesy Richard Ross


 

 



Ann Hamilton

Ann Hamilton (born June 22, 1956, Lima, Ohio) is a contemporary American artist best known for her installations, textile art, and sculptures, but is also active in the fields of photography, printmaking, video, and video installation.

She trained in textile design at the University of Kansas and later received an MFA from Yale University in sculpture. She taught at the University of California at Santa Barbara from 1985 to 1991 and won the MacArthur Fellowship in 1993.

In 1999, Hamilton was the American representative to the Venice Biennale with an installation of walls embossed with Braille, which caught a red powder as it slid down from above.

Allegheny Riverfront Park in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is one of her major commissions.

Ann Hamilton was named a 2007 Agnes Gund Foundation Fellow and awarded a $50,000 grant by United States Artists, a public charity that supports and promotes the work of American artists.

In 2008, she won the 14th Annual Heinz Award for Arts and Humanities.

In February 2009, Hamilton installed human carriage in the rotunda of the Guggenheim Museum, New York as part of the exhibition The Third Mind: American Artists Contemplate Asia, 18601989. Her formal description of human carriage reads Installation of cloth, wire, bells, books, string, pipe, pulleys, pages, cable, gravity, air, and sound, and the Guggenheim Museum described its working thus: Hamilton devises a mechanism that traverses the entire Guggenheim balustrade, taking the form of a white silk bell carriage with Tibetan bells attached inside. As the cage spirals down along the balustrade, the purifying bells ring, awakening viewers. The mechanism is hoisted back up to a post at the uppermost Rotunda Level 6, where an attendant exchanges weights composed of thousands of cut-up books that counter the pulley system that propels the mechanism itself."


 

 



Ann Hamilton with Jensen Architects.
Tower





Ann Hamilton. Molecular and Ceullular Biology Building





Ann Hamilton. Hands





Mildred Howard.


Mildred Howard (born
1945) uses many of the same principles as Hamilton, but constructs her installations as specifically African-American statements. A social activist, she draws chiefly on her own life to define the black experience. To her, memory is both individual and ethnic. Thus Tap: Investigation of Memory (fig. 1260) resonates with multiple layers of personal and cultural meaning. It celebrates the importance of this dance form to the artist's family during her childhood, as well as the special contribution African-Americans have made to it. The taps, labeled "Traveler" significantly enough, are lined up ritualistically in rows, with shoes in solemn procession down the center aisle, before a beat-up shoeshine stand which becomes a shrinelike altar. The spiritual references are intentional. Movement is closely identified in Howard's mind with African-American worshipespecially as practiced in storefront churches, the subject of another of her installationsin contrast to the somber introspection traditional to Western churches. Yet Tap succeeds precisely because of the contemplative atmosphere, which evokes a broad range of associations.


1260. Mildred Howard. Tap: Investigation of Memory. 1989.
Travelers' shoe taps, in antique 3-seat shoeshine stand,
assorted
painted shoes, and delayed playback of an ambient sound,
3 x 4 x 15.5 m.
Collection the artist. Courtesy
Gallery Paule Anglim, San Francisco




Mildred Howard. Crossings




Mildred Howard. In the Line of Fire





Mildred Howard. "6639"

 
 

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