Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
 

SCULPTURE BEFORE WORLD WAR I
SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
SCULPTURE SINCE 1945 - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 
 


SCULPTURE

 


SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS


France



Georges Vantongerloo.

Soon after arriving in Berlin, Gabo was in touch with De Stijl, the Dutch group
. Its only true sculptor was the Belgian Georges Vantongerloo (1886-1965), who settled in Paris. He, too, was obsessed with the problem of how to represent space. Metal: v=axj3bx3+cx (fig. 1132) is a daring prefiguration of Minimalist sculpture of the 1950s and 1960s. Whereas Mondrian's grids were never governed by strict ratios, Vantongerloo used the same bands to articulate space by establishing precise relationships as defined by the algebraic formula. The artist, however, saw this method as a means of expressing an intuition of creation, which is infinite and is perceived only through our sensitivity. His was indeed an ecstatic vision: "O! The incommensurable is never the same; if it were, it would be commensurable. And as the universe is incommensurable, what we need is an expression that would have neither end nor beginning; and this too exists." Ultimately this realization led him to abandon his sparse geometry for a curvilinear approach, based not on classical Euclidian geometry but on Cartesian analytical geometry, to describe parabolic equations.


1132. Georges Vantongerloo
Metal: v=axj3bx3+cx.
1935. 
Emanuel Hoffmann Foundation,
Basel, on loan to Kunstmuseum Basel

 



Georges Vantongerloo. Construction within a sphere
 

 


Georges Vantongerloo

Georges Vantongerloo (24 November 1886, Antwerp–5 October 1965, Paris) was a Belgian abstract sculptor and painter and founding member of the De Stijl group

From 1905 to 1909 Vantongerloo studied Fine Art at the Fine Art Academies in Antwerp and Brussels. Conscripted into World War I, he was wounded in a gas attack and discharged from the army in 1914. During 1916 he met Theo Van Doesburg and the following year he was a co-signator of the first manifesto of the De Stijl group. Vantongerloo moved to Paris in 1927 and began a correspondence with the Belgian Prime Minister, Henri Jaspar in relation to the design of a bridge over the Scheldt at Antwerp. In 1930 he joined the Cercle et Carré group in Paris and a year later he was a founding member of Abstraction-Création.
 

 




Jacques Lipchitz.


Contrary to what one might have expected, the everyday materials of Synthetic Cubism proved of far greater interest to painters than to the Cubist sculptors, who maintained a traditional allegiance to bronze. After World War I sculptors in France largely forsook abstraction and abandoned Expressionism altogether. Only the Lithuanian-born Jacques Lipchitz  (1891-1973), a friend of both Picasso and Matisse, continued to explore the possibilities offered by Cubism. He also shared in Brancusi's primevalism, and in the mid-1920s he achieved a remarkable synthesis of these two tendencies. With its intently staring eyes, figure (fig. 1133) is a haunting
evocation in Cubist terms of African sculpture. Consisting of two interlocking figures, it creates a play of open and closed forms that relieves Brancusi's austere simplicity through arabesque rhythms akin to those of Matisse. Not surprisingly, the patron who commissioned it as a garden sculpture found it difficult to live with Figure. No other sculptor at the time was able to rival Lipschitz for sheer power, and he set an important example for the generation of sculptors that reached maturity a decade later.
 


1133. Jacques Lipchitz. Figure.
1926-30.
Bronze, height 217 cm.
Collection, The Museum of Modern Art, New York


 

 


Jacques Lipchitz

Jacques Lipchitz, original name Chaim Jacob Lipchitz (born August 10 [August 22, New Style], 1891, Druskininkai, Lithuania, Russian Empire—died May 26, 1973, Capri, Italy), Russian-born French sculptor whose style was based on the principles of Cubism; he was a pioneer of nonrepresentational sculpture.

As a youth, Lipchitz studied engineering in Vilnius, Lithuania. When he moved to Paris in 1909, however, he became fascinated by French avant-garde art, and he began to study sculpture as an avenue to better understand modern art. After a brief term of service (1912–13) in the imperial Russian army, Lipchitz returned to Paris. There the Mexican muralist Diego Rivera introduced him to Pablo Picasso, the painter who (with Georges Braque) had created the Cubist style about 1907. Lipchitz soon began to translate the pictorial experiments of Cubist painters into three-dimensional sculpture, as in Man with Guitar (1916). Lipchitz worked exclusively in solid blocks of material or in low-relief still lifes to simulate the polychromatic prisms of Cubist paintings.

About 1925 Lipchitz began to produce a series of sculptures collectively known as “transparents.” In these curvilinear bronzes, he incorporated open space into the design, depicting mass by integrating solid with void. Many of the transparents, such as Harpist (1928), were cast from small, fragile cardboard-and-wax constructions. Lipchitz translated some of these smaller pieces into sculptures on a more monumental scale, as in Figure (1926–30). With such transparents as The Couple (1928–29), Lipchitz attempted to express emotion instead of merely addressing formal concerns, as he had in his earlier works.

By 1941, when he moved to New York City, Lipchitz had established an international reputation. His new interest in spiritual questions coincided with a revived desire to give his pieces solidity, notably in massive works such as The Prayer (1943) and Prometheus Strangling the Vulture II (1944–53). He completed his last large work, Bellerophon Taming Pegasus, in 1966; it was installed at Columbia University in New York City in 1977.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Jacques Lipchitz. Dancer


 

Jacques Lipchitz. La joie de vivre
1927


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Bird Flight


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Tel Aviv, Museum of Art


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Mother and Child


 


Jacques Lipchitz. Prometheus Strangling the Vulture

 


Jacques Lipchitz. Covenant of the People


 

Jacques Lipchitz.
Peace on Earth, Music Center of Los Angeles County
1966-69


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Seated Man with Guitar
1925


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Rescue II


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Homme assis avec guitare


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Sailor with Guitar


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Bather
1925


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Elle


 

Jacques Lipchitz. Man with a Guitar
1915
 
 

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