Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES

 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
 

SCULPTURE BEFORE WORLD WAR I
SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
SCULPTURE SINCE 1945 - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 
 


SCULPTURE

 


SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS




SURREALISM


Ready-mades are certainly extreme demonstrations of a principle: that artistic creation depends neither on established rules nor on manual craftsmanship. The principle itself was an important discovery, although Duchamp abandoned ready-mades after only a few years. The Surrealist contribution to sculpture is harder to define. It was difficult to apply the theory of "pure psychic automatism" to painting, but still harder to live up to it in sculpture. How indeed could solid, durable materials be given shape without the sculptor being consciously aware of the process?



Meret Oppenheim.

A breakthrough came in
1930, when the Surrealists met in response to a growing crisis within the movement. They issued a new manifesto drafted by Andre Breton that called for the "profound and veritable occultation of Surrealism." It further required "uncovering the strange symbolic life of the most ordinary and clearly defined objects." The result was a new class of Surrealist object: neither ready-made nor sculpture, it constituted a kind of three-dimensional collage assembled not out of aesthetic concerns using traditional techniques but according to "poetic affinity" following dictates of the subconscious. Like Object (fig. 1135) by Meret Oppenheim (1913-1985), which created a sensation when it was exhibited in 1936, many were intended to be repulsive and unsettling in the extreme, yet proved all the more fascinating for that very reason.



1135.
Meret Oppenheim. Object. 1936. Fur-covered cup, saucer, and spoon.
The Museum of Modem Art, New York


 

 


Meret Oppenheim

Méret Oppenheim (6 October 1913 — 15 November 1985) was a German-born Swiss, Surrealist artist, and photographer. Oppenheim was a member of the Surrealist movement of the 1920s along with André Breton, Luis Buñuel, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, and other writers and visual artists. Besides creating art objects, Oppenheim also famously appeared as a model for photographs by Man Ray, most notably a series of nude shots of her interacting with a printing press.
 

Méret Oppenheim was born on October 6, 1913, in Berlin. Oppenheim is named after Meretlein, a wild child who lives in the woods in the novel ‘’Der Grüne Heinrich’’ (The Green Henry) by Gottfried Keller.  Oppenheim had two siblings, a sister named Kristin (born 1915) and a brother named Burkhard (born 1919). Her father, a German doctor, was conscripted into the army at the outbreak of war in 1914. Consequently, Oppenheim and her mother moved to live with Oppenheim's maternal grandparents in Delémont, Switzerland. In Switzerland, Oppenheim was exposed to art and artists from a young age. Oppenheim was inspired by her aunt, Ruth Wenger, especially by Wenger's devotion to art and her modern lifestyle.

In 1932, at the age of eighteen, Oppenheim moved to Paris and sporadically attended the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. In 1933 she met Hans Arp and Alberto Giacometti who, after visiting her studio and seeing her work, invited her to participate in the Surrealist exhibition in the “Salon des Surindépendants,” held in Paris between October 27 and November 26. Oppenheim met André Breton and began to participate in meetings at the Café de la Place Blanche with the Surrealist circle.

In 1936, Oppenheim had her first solo exhibition in Basel, Switzerland, at the Galerie Schulthess. She continued to contribute to Surrealist exhibitions until 1960. Many of her pieces consisted of everyday objects arranged as such that they allude to female sexuality and feminine exploitation by the opposite sex. Oppenheim’s paintings focused on the same themes. Her originality and audacity established her as a leading figure in the Surrealist movement.

Oppenheim's best known piece is Object (Le Déjeuner en fourrure) (1936). The sculpture consists of a teacup, saucer and spoon that the artist covered with fur from a Chinese gazelle. It is displayed at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The enormous success of this early work would create later problems for Oppenheim as an artist, and soon after its creation she drifted away from the Surrealists. Decades later, in 1972, she artistically commented on its dominance of her career by producing a number of "souvenirs" of Le Déjeuner en fourrure.

In her acceptance speech upon receiving the Art Award of the City of Basel on January 16, 1975, Oppenheim coined the phrase "Freedom is not given to you — you have to take it."
 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

 

 


Meret Oppenheim. Breakfast in Fur
1936


 


Meret Oppenheim. Tisch mit Vogelfьssen
1939


 


Meret Oppenheim. Das Ohr von Giacometti
1933


 


Meret Oppenheim. Untitled
1952


 


Meret Oppenheim. Le couple
1956


 


Meret Oppenheim. Weisser Kopf, blaues Gewand
1935


 


Meret Oppenheim. My Nurse
1936


 


Meret Oppenheim. My Nurse
1936


 


Meret Oppenheim. Unterirdische Schleife
1960


 


Meret Oppenheim. Uhrzeit Venus


 


Meret Oppenheim. Quelle
1959


 



Meret Oppenheim. Untitled



 


Meret Oppenheim. Hermes Fountain


 


 
Meret Oppenheim. Fountain


 

Jean Arp.

Perhaps the purest form of Surrealist sculpture, however, was created by Jean (Hans) Arp (1887-1966). Around 1930 he began to translate his reliefs, which arose from his experiments with collage, into three-dimensional forms. These evolved a few years later into the Human Concretion series (fig. 1136), a term that aptly describes their character. In contrast to Brancusi's abstractions, which reduce things to their absolute essence, Arp's biomorphic forms seem to grow organically as they are built up. Regardless of medium, the concretions are notable tor their perfection. (They were almost always modeled in clay or plaster, although many were later carved in marble and wood, or sometimes cast in bronze, by skilled artisans.) Small wonder they have influenced countless sculptors since then.



1136. Jean Arp. Human Concretion. 1935.
Original plaster, 49.5 x 47.6 x 64.7 cm.
The Museum of Modem Art, New York


 

 


Jean Arp

Jean Arp, also called Hans Arp (born September 16, 1887, Strassburg, Germany [now Strasbourg, France]—died June 7, 1966, Basel, Switzerland), French sculptor, painter, and poet who was one of the leaders of the European avant-garde in the arts during the first half of the 20th century.

First trained as an artist in his native Strasbourg, he later studied in Weimar, Germany, and at the Académie Julian in Paris. In 1912 he went to Munich, where, through his friend Wassily Kandinsky, he became briefly associated with Der Blaue Reiter. He returned to Paris in 1914 and became acquainted with the artists Modigliani, Picasso, and Robert Delaunay, as well as with the writer Max Jacob. During World War I he took refuge in Zürich, where he became one of the founders of the Dada movement. It was there that he produced his first painted reliefs. After the war he lived in Germany until 1924, when he and his wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber, whom he had married in 1921, settled near Paris in the town of Meudon. During the 1920s he was associated with the Surrealists, and in 1930 he was a member of the Cercle et Carré group. This was also the year in which he made his first papiers déchirés (“torn papers”). In 1931 he participated in the Abstraction-Création movement. During World War II he again went to live in Zürich, where his wife died in 1943. While in Switzerland he did his first papiers froissés (“crumpled papers”). After the war Arp returned to Meudon, where he continued his experiments with abstract form and colour and wrote poetry. Arp on Arp: Poems, Essays, Memories by Jean Arp (1972) and Arp’s Collected French Writings (1974) were edited by Marcel Jean.
 

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Jean Arp. Objects Arranged According to the Law of Chance
1930


 

Jean Arp. Moustaches
1925


 

Jean Arp. Rising up
1962


 

Jean Arp. Amphora-Fruit
1946


 

Jean Arp. Classical Sculpture
1960


 

Jean Arp. Crown of Buds I
1936


 

Jean Arp. Head and Shell
1933


 

Jean Arp. Human Concretion without Oval Bowl
1933


 

Jean Arp. Die Grablegung der Vogel
und Schmetterlinge
1916


 

Jean Arp. Kobra-Kentaur
1952


 

Jean Arp. Torso with Buds
1961


 

Jean Arp. Mirr


 

Jean Arp. Sculpture to be Lost in the Forest
1932


 

Jean Arp. Impish Fruit
1943


 

Jean Arp. Pagoda Fruit
1949


 

Jean Arp. Aquatique (Aquatic)
1953


 

Jean Arp. Torse


 

Jean Arp. Idol
1950


 

Jean Arp. Colonne de Muse


 

Jean Arp. Oriforme

 

 


Pablo Picasso.

As in painting,
Picasso's sovereign genius provided much of the impetus for sculpture during the 1930s. In 1928 it emerged as a serious interest for him, and for the next five years he concentrated intensively on making sculptures of all sorts. They demonstrate an amazing variety that testifies to the fertility of his imagination. Head of a Woman (fig. 1137) is an especially appealing example of his work from this period. This arresting figure, made from a colander and other discarded materials, shows Picasso's fascination with ethnographic sculpture in its "primitive" quality. Its kinship with the head in Girl Before a Mirror of about the same time suggests why the artist turned to sculpture in the first place. On the one hand, his painted shapes have a solidity that

practically demands to be translated into three-dimensional form. On the other, his work is so replete with startling transformations that the process of metamorphosis involved in sculpture became highly intriguing. Here there can be little doubt that Picasso's involvement with Surrealism stimulated his imagination and allowed him to approach sculpture without preconception. As he put it, "One should be able to take a bit of wood and find it's a bird." That is what allowed him to see the possibilities in the debris of modern civilizationan attitude that culminated in Bull's Head.
 


1137. Pablo Picasso. Head of n Woman. 1930-31.
Painted iron, sheet metal, springs, and colanders,
100
x 37 x 59 cm.
Musee Picasso, Paris






Pablo Picasso. Bull's Head. 1943. Musee Picasso, Paris

 
 

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