Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES

 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
 

SCULPTURE BEFORE WORLD WAR I
SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
SCULPTURE SINCE 1945 - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
 
 
 


SCULPTURE

 


SCULPTURE BETWEEN THE WARS

 

England

The effects produced by Calder can be compared directly with those of Surrealist painting. The same cannot be said of two English sculptors who represent the culmination of the modern sculptural tradition before 1945: Henry Moore (1898 — 1986) and Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975), the preeminent woman sculptor of modern times. The presence of Gabo, Kokoschka, Mondrian, Gropius, and other emigres contributed greatly to the rise of modern art in England during the mid-1930s, when Moore and Hepworth were emerging as mature artists. In consequence, they absorbed the full spectrum of earlier twentieth-century art, but in different measure, reflecting their contrasting personalities. Moore was the more boldly inventive artist, but Hepworth may well have been the better sculptor. However, the two were closely associated as leaders of the modern movement in England, and influenced one another.



Henry Moore

The majestic Two Forms (fig.
1141), an early work by Henry Moore, may be regarded as the second-generation offspring of Brancusi's The Kiss done a quarter-century earlier (see fig. 1125), although there is no direct connection between them. Abstract and subtle in shape, they are nevertheless "persons" in much the same vein as Lipschitz's Figure (fig. 1133), even though they can be called "images" only in the metaphoric sense. This family groupthe forked slab evolved from the artist's studies of the mother-and-child themeis mysterious and remote like the monoliths of Stonehenge, which greatly impressed the sculptor. And like Stonehenge, Moore's figures are meant to be placed in a landscape, so architectural are they in character.

Through biomorphic abstraction, his Recumbent Figure (fig.
1142) retains both a classical motifone thinks of a reclining river-god
and a primeval look. The design is in complete harmony with the natural striations of the stone, as if the forms had resulted from slow erosion over a thousand years. Moore has evoked the essence of the human figure so successfully that if we were to succumb to the natural temptation to run our hand over the sculpture, it would seem filled with inner life, so convincingly do the forms swell and undulate. Moore was originally inspired by a Mayan statue of the rain spirit Chac Mool.

Interestingly enough, the nearest relative of Brancusi's The Kiss is a Pre-Columbian pottery figurine group, which, however, the artist cannot have known, since it was a later discovery. The coincidence nevertheless serves to underscore the fundamental kinship between Brancusi and Moore. Moore's figure also suggests an awareness of Arp's Human Concretions from about the same time (see fig.
1136). The difference is that Arp suggests anatomical forms without specifically referring to them, as Moore does. The total effect is not unlike the arabesques achieved by Matisse in Reclining Nude I (fig. 1124). In addition, the liberties Moore takes with the human figure are unthinkable without Picasso (compare fig. 1065).
In this way, Moore unites the strands of early modern sculpture into a seamless whole of incomparable beauty and subtlety.



1141. Henry Moore. Two Forms. 1936. Stone, height 106.7 cm. The Philadelphia Museum of Art
1142. Henry Moore. Recumbent Figure. 1938. Green Hornton stone, length 137.2 cm. The Tate Gallery, London
 

 


Henry Moore

Henry Moore, (born July 30, 1898, Castleford, Yorkshire, England—died August 31, 1986, Much Hadham, Hertfordshire), English sculptor whose organically shaped, abstract, bronze and stone figures constitute the major 20th-century manifestation of the humanist tradition in sculpture. Much of his work is monumental, and he was particularly well-known for a series of reclining nudes.


Background and education
Moore was born in a small coal-mining town near Leeds in the north of England. He was the seventh child of Raymond Spencer Moore, a Lincolnshire man of Irish ancestry, and his wife, Mary Baker, who came from Staffordshire, in the English Midlands. Moore’s father was a coal miner, a self-educated man, a socialist, and a trade unionist.

Moore won a scholarship to the Castleford Grammar School, where he studied from 1909 to 1915 and was much encouraged by the art instructor Alice Gostick. Already ambitious to become a sculptor, the young Moore acceded to his father’s wish that he should first train to be a schoolteacher. For several months he practiced teaching, but because of World War I further training had to be postponed, and in February 1917 Moore joined the British Army. He was sent to France, where, after an intensive bombardment, Moore suffered from the effects of gas shells. He collapsed and was sent back to England for hospital treatment and convalescence. In September 1919 he was given a rehabilitation grant, which he used to go to the Leeds School of Art, where he studied for two years. In his first year at Leeds, Moore spent most of his time studying drawing. Although he wanted to study sculpture, no teacher was appointed until his second year; Moore became his first pupil. He was soon joined by a young student from nearby Wakefield, Barbara Hepworth, who also became a major sculptor.

Moore’s intellectual horizons slowly began to broaden, and he was excited by the modern paintings that he saw in the private collection of the vice-chancellor of the University of Leeds, Sir Michael Sadler. At the end of his second year at Leeds School of Art, Moore passed the sculpture examination and was awarded a Royal Exhibition scholarship to study at the Royal College of Art in London. In September 1921 he moved to London and began three years of advanced study in sculpture; he took his diploma at the Royal College after two years and spent a third year doing postgraduate work. Moore found a good friend and lifetime supporter in the director there, William Rothenstein, who was not unsympathetic to modern artistic tendencies, although he remained a conservative artist himself.

Instruction at the Royal College of Art was less important to Moore than the opportunity to study the works in the museums of London—particularly in the British Museum, with its wide-ranging collection of ancient sculpture. Also close at hand was the fine collection of Auguste Rodin’s sculpture at the Victoria and Albert Museum, but Moore was already reacting against the European sculptural tradition and turning instead to “primitive” and archaic art. He was discovering for himself the power and beauty of Egyptian, Etruscan, and, later, pre-Columbian and African sculpture.


Travel and further artistic influences
Upon graduating from the Royal College in 1924, Moore was appointed a part-time instructor in sculpture there for a seven-year term. His exceptional gifts and potential stature were already recognized by those who knew him best. He was also awarded a traveling scholarship and spent the first six months of 1925 in France and Italy. Back in England, Moore began work in 1926 on the first of his depictions of reclining women. He was also carving a variety of subjects in stone, including half-length female figures, mother-and-child groups, and masks and heads. Though certain works show his awareness of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brancusi and the Cubist sculptors, the most important influence on Moore’s work at this time was that of ancient Mexican stone carving. In the Trocadero Museum in Paris he had been impressed by a plaster cast of a limestone Chac Mool—a Mayan representation of the rain spirit, depicted as a male reclining figure with its knees drawn up together, its staring head at a right angle to its body, and its hands holding on its stomach a flat dish for sacrifices. Moore became fascinated with this sculpture, which seemed to him to have qualities of power, sensitivity, three-dimensional depth, and originality of form that no other stone sculpture possessed. Disdainful of conventional standards of the beautiful, and seeking a way to imbue his own work with such qualities, he changed the Mexican male figure into a female one, the better to express a more human, earthy, and rhythmic image of his own. This image of a reclining woman would continue to be a major motif throughout his career.

In 1928 Moore was given his first one-man exhibition, at the Warren Gallery in London, and he began his first public commission, a relief carving of the North Wind on the new headquarters building for the London Transport Board. In 1929 he married Irina Radetzky, of Russian-Austrian parentage, who was a painting student at the Royal College of Art. The young couple moved into a large studio in Hampstead, one of the northern suburbs of London. Moore was a member of a group of young artists who in 1933 formed Unit One in a deliberate attempt to make the indifferent English public aware of the international modern movement in art and architecture. The driving spirit behind Unit One was the painter Paul Nash, but the leading members were Barbara Hepworth and her painter husband, Ben Nicholson. Another friend and advocate was the poet and critic Herbert Read, who wrote the first monograph on Moore in 1934.


Achievements in the 1930s
The most advanced artistic activity in England in the early 1930s was centred around this circle of friends. They were all interested in abstract art at a time when this was considered the ultimate in artistic extremism. In his own work from 1931 onward, Moore moved tentatively away from the human figure to experiment with abstract shapes and also to combine abstract shapes with references to the figure. In 1931 he had the first of many one-man exhibitions in the Leicester Galleries in London. His work was enthusiastically introduced by sculptor Jacob Epstein, but it aroused violent criticism in the press and made Moore a notorious figure. He was urged to resign his position at the Royal College of Art, and, when his contract expired in 1932, he left to start a sculpture department at the Chelsea School of Art, also in London.

Throughout the 1930s Moore displayed in his work not the slightest inclination to please the public. He was very interested in Pablo Picasso’s drawings and paintings of the late 1920s, which have strong sculptural implications, and he felt free to distort and break up the forms of the body in a much more radical way than before. Sometimes he seemed to leave the human figure behind altogether. The pages of his sketchbooks of this period show that he was full of ideas for abstract sculptures that would make use of organic and natural forms rather than pure geometrical shapes. He was collecting pebbles, rocks, shells, and bones, making drawings of them and studying them to find what he called “nature’s principles of form and rhythm,” which he sought to apply to his own sculpture. In particular, this meant opening up the carvings with concavities and even with holes pierced right through the forms—a practice that the public initially found shocking and abhorrent when the sculpture retained a strong suggestion of the human figure.


Changes wrought by World War II
When the war broke out the Chelsea School was evacuated from London, and Moore stopped teaching. At first he worked mostly in his cottage in Kent, until its propinquity to the Channel coast, where invasion was hourly expected, forced a return to London. The Moores eventually took a house at Perry Green, Much Hadham, in Hertfordshire, which became their permanent home. There, in the tranquil countryside about 20 miles north of London, he slowly added studios and extra rooms to an ancient farmhouse.

Shortage of materials in the early years of the war forced Moore to concentrate on small sculptures and then exclusively on drawing. Seeing the people of London seeking shelter in the stations of the London Underground during the German air raids that began in September 1940 led him to begin his series of shelter drawings. Moore would spend the night observing and making small sketch notes; then, in the next days at the studio, he would work his ideas up into large coloured drawings that expressed in permanent form the resigned but indomitable spirit of Londoners during the bombing of their city. He also visited the colliery in Castleford, Yorkshire, where his father had worked, and made drawings of the coal miners at work that have a strength and dignity similar to the shelter drawings.

In 1943 Moore accepted a public commission to create Madonna and Child for the church of St. Matthew in Northampton. The possibility of reviving the great tradition of religious art appealed to him, and he tried to give his figures for Northampton what he called “an austerity and a nobility, and some touch of grandeur (even hieratic aloofness) which is missing in the everyday ‘Mother and Child’ idea.”

Another commission, for a sculpture depicting a family group, followed in 1944, and the result was a dramatic change in Moore’s style, away from the experimentation of the 1930s and toward a more naturalistic approach and humanistic subject matter that had an immediate popular appeal. Moore had made dozens of studies in clay and terra-cotta when working on the Madonna and Child and family-group commissions, and these were cast in bronze and issued in editions of seven to nine copies each. In this way, Moore’s work became available to museums and collectors all over the world.

This humanistic work was the basis of Moore’s international reputation, which dates from the large retrospective exhibition held in 1946 at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. On this occasion Moore visited the United States for the first time. American collectors began to buy his work, and henceforward he was freed of financial worries and was able to work on the scale he felt his sculpture demanded. In Europe, too, Moore’s reputation as an outstanding sculptor was confirmed when he won the sculpture prize at the 1948 Venice Biennale. In Britain Moore fulfilled several commissions that extended the range and scale of his work: family groups for the new towns of Stevenage, Hertfordshire, in 1948, and Harlow, Essex, in 1954–55; Three Draped Standing Figures in stone (1947–48) for Battersea Park, London; a Madonna for St. Peter’s Church in Claydon, Suffolk, in 1949; and the large Reclining Figure for the 1951 Festival of Britain. The death of his mother in 1944, and the birth of his only child, Mary, in 1946, made the theme of the family—particularly the mother-and-child relationship—a more personal one that Moore treated in several major works in the late 1940s and ’50s.


Later years
Critics who had begun to think that Moore, the revolutionary sculptor, had been tamed, were proven wrong by the appearance in 1950 of the first of Moore’s series of bronze standing figures, with their harsh and angular pierced forms and distinct feeling of menace. When, in the summer of 1953, Moore was ill, he began to turn inward in his work, showing a willingness to experiment and to follow private concerns. A large marble carving he made in 1957–58 for the headquarters of UNESCO in Paris belongs to a long series of reclining female figures, but the brick sculpture relief made in 1955 for the Bouwcentrum in Rotterdam, Netherlands, reintroduced biomorphic forms into his work, which led to the series of freestanding totemic upright figures made in 1955–56. Moore also varied his subject matter in the 1950s with such works as King and Queen (1952–53), and the two warriors—Warrior with Shield (1953–54) and Falling Warrior (1956–57)—that were rare examples of Moore’s use of the male figure. All three works owe something to Moore’s visit to Greece in 1951, when he saw the cities of Athens, Mycenae, and Delphi for the first time. Most of his sculpture since the war was in bronze, though he had not altogether stopped carving in wood and stone. Furthermore, even when the sculptures were cast in bronze, they were not modeled in clay but built up initially in plaster over a wire and wood armature. Moore always liked to work like a carver, cutting and scraping and chiseling the surfaces with a carver’s tools.

From the time of his 60th birthday in 1958, Moore seemed to be less concerned with his public role as a modern sculptor and more inclined to pursue his private interests. He continued to accept commissions, most notably those for Lincoln Center (New York City) in 1963–65 and for the University of Chicago in 1964. However, in both of these instances, unlike earlier commissions, Moore made no attempt to provide a sculpture that was specifically appropriate for the site: he instead used the commission to work out on a larger scale than would otherwise have been possible an idea that had long occupied his imagination. Thus, the Lincoln Center sculpture is the largest of a series of multipart reclining female figures in which Moore makes use of symbolic correspondences between the body and such elements of landscape as cliffs, caves, and hillsides, and between the body and organic forms, particularly human and animal bones. Although the University of Chicago’s Atom Piece, with its mushroom-cloud formation at the top, commemorates the splitting of the atom, the sculpture is also closely related to other large abstract sculptures of the 1960s: Knife-Edge Two-Piece (1962), Locking Piece (1963–64), Three-Way Piece No. 1: Points (1964), and Three-Piece Sculpture No. 3: Vertebrae (1968)—all of them quite massive objects that have lost their obvious human connotation as a consequence of their enormous size. Some of his abstract sculptures from the mid-1960s were executed in marble rather than in bronze. Beginning in 1965, Moore maintained a summer cottage at Forte dei Marmi, Italy, near the Carrara stone quarries, and, with the assistance of Italian workers, he began to create stone carvings again.

In his final years Moore established an unostentatious way of living, and two or three young sculptors helped him with the more laborious and time-consuming activities entailed in sculpting. He also became a prolific printmaker, executing hundreds of etchings and lithographs from the late 1960s to the early 1980s, including notable series such as Elephant Skull Album (1969), Stonehenge (1972), and Sheep Albums (1972 and 1974).

In 1977 Moore created the Henry Moore Foundation to promote art appreciation and to display his work, and in 1982 the Henry Moore Sculpture Gallery and Centre for the Study of Sculpture opened in the city of Leeds. During his own lifetime Moore achieved international critical acclaim; he was the first modern English sculptor to do so. He is still regarded as one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century.

Sir Alan Bowness

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Henry Moore. Draped Figure


 

Henry Moore. Untitled


 


Henry Moore. Reclining Figure


 


Henry Moore. Reclining Figure


 


Henry Moore. Figure


 


Henry Moore. Piece #3: Vertebrae


 


Henry Moore. Two Forms


 


Henry Moore. Woman


 


Henry Moore. Figure in a Shelter


 


Henry Moore. Two Large Forms


 


Henry Moore. Bronze Form






Barbara Hepworth

In common with Moore's, Hepworth's sculpture had a biological foundation, but her style became more abstract after her marriage to the painter Ben Nicholson
, her association with the Constructivist Naum Gabo, and her contact in Paris with Brancusi and Arp. For a time she was practicing several modes at once under these influences. With the onset of World War II, she moved to St. Ives in Cornwall, where she initiated an individual style that emerged fully in 1943. Sculpture with Color (Oval Form) flawlessly synthesizes painting and sculpture, Surrealist biomorphism and organic abstraction, and the molding of space and shaping of mass (fig. 1143). Carved from wood and immaculately finished, it reduces the natural shape of an egg to a timeless ideal that has the lucid perfection of a classical head, yet the elemental expressiveness of a primitive mask. Hepworth's egg undoubtedly owes something to Brancusi's (see fig. 1126), although their work is very different. The colors accentuate the play between the interior and exterior of the hollowed-out form, while the strings, a device first used by Moore, seem to suggest a life force within. As a result of its open forms, Sculpture with Color enters into an active relationship with its surroundings. Like Moore, Hepworth was concerned with the relationship of the human figure in a landscape, but in an unusually personal way.

After moving to a house overlooking St. Ives Bay, she wrote, "I was the figure in the landscape and every sculpture contained to a greater or lesser degree the ever-changing forms and contours embodying my own response to a given position in that landscape. I used colour and strings in many of the carvings of this time. The colour in the concavities plunged me into the depth of water, caves, or shadows deeper than the carved concavities themselves. The strings were the tension I felt between myself and the sea, the wind or the hills."



1143. Barbara Hepworth. Sculpture with Color (Oval Form),
Vale Blue and Red.
1943.
Wood with strings, length 45.7 cm. Private collection

 

 


Barbara Hepworth

Dame Barbara Hepworth, in full Dame Jocelyn Barbara Hepworth (born Jan. 10, 1903, Wakefield, Yorkshire, Eng.—died May 20, 1975, St. Ives, Cornwall), sculptor whose works were among the earliest abstract sculptures produced in England. Her lyrical forms and feeling for material made her one of the most influential sculptors of the mid-20th century.

Fascinated from early childhood with natural forms and textures, Hepworth decided at age 15 to become a sculptor. In 1919 she enrolled in the Leeds School of Art, where she befriended fellow student Henry Moore. Their lifelong friendship and reciprocal influence were important factors in the parallel development of their careers.

Hepworth’s earliest works were naturalistic with simplified features. Purely formal elements gradually gained greater importance for her until, by the early 1930s, her sculpture was entirely abstract. Works such as Reclining Figure (1932) resemble rounded biomorphic forms and natural stones; they seem to be the fruit of long weathering instead of the hard work with a chisel they actually represent. In 1933 Hepworth married (her second husband; the first was the sculptor John Skeaping) the English abstract painter Ben Nicholson, under whose influence she began to make severe, geometric pieces with straight edges and immaculate surfaces.

As Hepworth’s sculpture matured during the late 1930s and ’40s, she concentrated on the problem of the counterplay between mass and space. Pieces such as Wave (1943–44) became increasingly open, hollowed out, and perforated, so that the interior space is as important as the mass surrounding it. Her practice, increasingly frequent in her mature pieces, of painting the works’ concave interiors further heightened this effect, while she accented and defined the sculptural voids by stretching strings taut across their openings.

During the 1950s Hepworth produced an experimental series called Groups, clusters of small anthropomorphic forms in marble so thin that their translucence creates a magical sense of inner life. In the next decade she was commissioned to do a number of sculptures approximately 20 feet (6 metres) high. Among the more successful of her works in this gigantic format is the geometric Four-Square (Walk Through) (1966).

Hepworth was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1965. A Pictorial Autobiography was published in 1970 and reissued in 1993. She died in a fire in her home at St. Ives, Cornwall; her home was preserved as the Barbara Hepworth Home and Sculpture Garden and is run by the Tate St. Ives, a branch of the Tate galleries.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Barbara Hepworth. Oval Form





Barbara Hepworth. Pendour





Barbara Hepworth. Untitled





Barbara Hepworth. Forms





Barbara Hepworth. Figure





Barbara Hepworth. Monolyth-Empyrean. 1953
Gardens of Kenwood House, London





Barbara Hepworth. Sphere





Barbara Hepworth. Winged Figure. 1963
Oxford Street, London






Barbara Hepworth. Family





Barbara Hepworth. Dual Form





Barbara Hepworth. Sphere with Inner Form. 1963
Kroller-Muller Museum, Otterlo, the Netherlands





Barbara Hepworth. Oval Form





Barbara Hepworth. Space





Barbara Hepworth. Icon


 



Barbara Hepworth. Oval Sculpture (No. 2)

 
 

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