Visual History of the World




From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
First Empires
The Ancient World
The Middle Ages
The Early Modern Period
The Modern Era
The World Wars and Interwar Period
The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists


The Early Modern Period

16th - 18th century


The smooth transition from the Middle Ages to the Modern Age is conventionally fixed on such events as the Reformation and the discovery of the "New World," which brought about the emergence of a new image of man and his world. Humanism, which spread out of Italy, also made an essential contribution to this with its promotion of a critical awareness of Christianity and the Church. The Reformation eventually broke the all-embracing power of the Church. After the Thirty Years' War, the concept of a universal empire was also nullified. The era of the nation-state began, bringing with it the desire to build up political and economic power far beyond Europe. The Americas, Africa, and Asia provided regions of expansion for the Europeans.

Proportions of the Human Figure by Leonardo da Vinci (drawing, ca. 1490)
is a prime example of the new approach of Renaissance
artists and scientists to the anatomy of the human body.



The Holy Roman Empire under Enlightened Absolutism



The Rise of Prussia

After the Hohenzollern family had established themselves in Brandenburg, the Great Elector Frederick William made the region one of the leading forces in the empire. His son Frederick I secured the royal status of Prussia's rulers.


In 1411 King Sigismund made the Margraves of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern governors of the province of Brandenburg. Four years later he granted them the title of elector. The first rulers quickly established their authority in the cities.

Joachim II joined the Reformation movement in 1539 but, like his successor, stood by the emperor.

The rise of Brandenburg began with 2 John Sigismund, who converted to Calvinism in 1613.

In 1614 he acquired Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg on the Rhine during the dispute over the Julich-Cleves succession. In 1618 he inherited ducal Prussia, which had been founded in 1525 on the lands once held by the Teutonic Order.

Brandenburg was ravaged by the Thirty Years' War, as troops of both sides marched through to battle.

When 3 Frederick William, the Great Elector, came to power in 1640, he resolutely set about reconstruction.

After centralizing the tax system he acquired further territories (East Pomerania, Minden, and Halberstadt) through playing the emperor and France against one another. In 1675 he defeated the Swedish army at Fehrbellin and drove them out of Germany by seizing Swedish Pomerania and Rugen. His Potsdam Edict of Tolerance (1685) was a landmark, and paved the way for receiving the Huguenots who were driven out of France. The absolutist ruler left his successors a centralized state with a strong standing army, which was well on the way to becoming a major European power.

His son 4 Frederick III, together with his wife, the Welf princess Sophie Charlotte, turned the country into a glittering baroque state.

They promoted the arts, built palaces (such as Berlin's Charlottenburg), and founded universities. In return for providing military aid to the emperor in the War of Spanish Succession, he was granted the royal status he had desired.

On January 18,1701, in Konigsberg he had himself 5 crowned Frederick I, marking the arrival of a powerful new dynasty in Europe.

1 Joachim II from the House of Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg from 1535 to 1571, by Cranach d. Ä., Lucas
2 John Sigismund, elector of Brandenburg
3 Frederick William, "Great Elector" of Brandenburg, by Frans Luycx
4 Frederick III, elector of Brandenburg, later Frederick I, king of Prussia

5 Coronation of Frederick I on the January 18, 1701 in Konigsberg, painting, 19th ñ


Prussia under the Soldier King and Frederick the Great

Through the creation of an effective centralized administration and a powerful army, the Soldier King, Frederick William I, and his son, the enlightened despot Frederick the Great, turned Prussia into one of the greatest powers in Europe.


In 1713 Frederick William I, the "Soldier King," came to power. He was determined to cement his father's legacy with further reform to increase his dynasty's power and prestige. A straight-laced and thrifty Puritan, he sought to introduce a martial discipline into the bureaucracy and other aspects of the Prussian state. His was the largest standing army in Europe, accounting for three-quarters of the state's expenses. The mercantilist economy was forced to serve the needs of this military force.

More progressively, 6 Frederick William I introduced  compulsory primary education in 1717 and prohibited the physical punishment of serfs.

6 Frederick William I inspecting the results of his
education reforms in a Prussian school

Frederick William was pragmatic in foreign affairs, maintaining the alliance with Hanoverian England despite personal antipathy toward its rulers and occupying former Swedish West Pomerania without resistance in 1720. In 1732 he allowed the Salzburg Protestants, who had been expelled from Austria, to settle in the region, which boosted Prussia's economy. Prussia's "greatest domestic king" determined the character of the Prussian state until well into the 19th century.

His son 7 Frederick II (the Great), despite severe conflicts with his unyielding father during his youth, retained Frederick William's system of government—contrary to expectations—yet was simultaneously a passionate adherent of the Enlightenment and French aesthetics.

As the 9 "philosopher of Sanssouci" and à 8 talented flutist, he surrounded himself with eminent free-thinkers and artists, including 10 Voltaire.

He also used the army to expand Prussian territory, wresting Silesia from Austria in the War of Austrian Succession (1740-48).

7 Frederick II, known as "the Great"

9 The Palace of Sanssouci in Potsdam

8 The Flute Concert of Sanssouci by Adolph von Menzel, 1852, depicts Frederick playing the flute in his music room at Sanssouci.


10 King Frederick II dining in Sanssouci, with guests including Voltaire and Friedrich von Stille, by Adolph von Menzel, 1850


King Frederik II of Prussia visits a potato farm

During the 11 Seven Years' War (1756-1763), Prussia was brought to the verge of destruction by the alliance of Austria, France, Russia, and Saxony, and was saved only by the death of the Russian empress in 1762.

In 1772 Prussia participated, along with Russia and Austria, in the first partition of Poland. Domestically, Frederick bound the aristocracy into the leadership of the state and army and improved the educational system. The cost of his wars was borne by his subjects, but he made Prussia a dominant power and established the "Prussian myth."

11 Frederick the Great in the Battle of Zorndorf on the August 25, 1758 during the Seven Years' War



Frederick the Great


"I hope posterity will know to differentiate in me the philosopher from the prince, the gentleman from the politician.

I must admit: it is hard for he who is pulled into great European politics to maintain his honest and pure character."

Frederick the Great




Frederick II

king of Prussia
byname Frederick the Great, German Friedrich der Grosse

born Jan. 24, 1712, Berlin
died Aug. 17, 1786, Potsdam, near Berlin

king of Prussia (1740–86), a brilliant military campaigner who, in a series of diplomatic stratagems and wars against Austria and other powers, greatly enlarged Prussia’s territories and made Prussia the foremost military power in Europe. An enlightened absolute monarch, he favoured French language and art and built a French Rococo palace, Sans Souci, near Berlin.

Frederick, the third king of Prussia, ranks among the two or three dominant figures in the history of modern Germany. Under his leadership Prussia became one of the great states of Europe. Its territories were greatly increased and its military strength displayed to striking effect. From early in his reign Frederick achieved a high reputation as a military commander, and the Prussian army rapidly became a model admired and imitated in many other states. He also emerged quickly as a leading exponent of the ideas of enlightened government, which were then becoming influential throughout much of Europe; indeed, his example did much to spread and strengthen those ideas. Notably, his insistence on the primacy of state over personal or dynastic interests and his religious toleration widely affected the dominant intellectual currents of the age. Even more than his younger contemporaries, Catherine II the Great of Russia and Joseph II in the Habsburg territories, it was Frederick who, during the mid-18th century, established in the minds of educated Europeans a notion of what “enlightened despotism” should be. His actual achievements, however, were sometimes less than they appeared on the surface; indeed, his inevitable reliance on the landowning officer (Junker) class set severe limits in several respects to what he could even attempt. Nevertheless, his reign saw a revolutionary change in the importance and prestige of Prussia, which was to have profound implications for much of the subsequent history of Europe.

Early life
Frederick was the eldest surviving son of Frederick William I, king of Prussia, and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, daughter of George I of Britain. Frederick’s upbringing and education were strictly controlled by his father, who was a martinet as well as a paranoiac. Encouraged and supported by his mother and his sister Wilhelmina, Frederick soon came into bitter conflict with his father. Frederick William I deeply despised the artistic and intellectual tastes of his son and was infuriated by Frederick’s lack of sympathy with his own rigidly puritanical and militaristic outlook. His disappointment and contempt took the form of bitter public criticism and even outright physical violence, and Frederick, beaten and humiliated by his father, often over trifling details of behaviour, took refuge in evasion and deceit. This personal and family feud culminated spectacularly in 1730, when Frederick was imprisoned in the fortress of Küstrin after planning unsuccessfully to flee initially to France or Holland. Lieutenant Hans Hermann von Katte, the young officer who had been his accomplice in the plan, was executed in Frederick’s presence, and there was for a short time a real possibility that the prince might share his fate. During the next year or more Frederick, as a punishment, was employed as a junior official in local administration and deprived of his military rank. The effects of this terrible early life are impossible to measure with accuracy, but there is little doubt that the violent and capricious bullying of his father influenced him deeply.

In 1733, after a partial reconciliation with his father, Frederick was married to a member of a minor German princely family, Elizabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern, for whom he never cared and whom he systematically neglected. In the following year he saw active military service for the first time under the great Austrian commander Eugene of Savoy against the French army in the Rhineland. In the later 1730s, in semiretirement in the castle of Rheinsberg near Berlin and able for the first time to give free rein to his own tastes, he read voraciously, absorbing the ideas on government and international relations that were to guide him throughout his life. These years were perhaps the happiest that Frederick ever experienced. However, his relations with his father, though somewhat improved, remained strained.

Accession to the throne and foreign policy
Frederick William I died on May 31, 1740, and Frederick, on his accession, immediately made it clear to his ministers that he alone would decide policy. Within a few months he was given a chance to do so in a way that revolutionized Prussia’s international position. The Holy Roman emperor Charles VI, of the Austrian house of Habsburg, died on October 20, leaving as his heir a daughter, the archduchess Maria Theresa, whose claims to several of the heterogeneous Habsburg territories were certain to be disputed. Moreover, her army was in a poor state, the financial position of the Habsburg government very difficult, and her ministers mediocre and in many cases old. Frederick, however, thanks to his father, had a fine army and ample funds at his disposal. He therefore decided shortly after the emperor’s death to attack the Habsburg province of Silesia, a wealthy and strategically important area to which the Hohenzollerns, the ruling family of Prussia, had dynastic claims, though weak ones. The most important threat to his plans was Russian support for Maria Theresa, which he hoped to avert by judicious bribery in St. Petersburg and by exploiting the confusion that was likely to follow the imminent death of the empress Anna. He also hoped that Maria Theresa would cede most of Silesia in return for a promise of Prussian support against her other enemies, but her refusal to do so made war inevitable.

The first military victory of Frederick’s reign was the battle of Mollwitz (April 1741), though it owed nothing to his own leadership; in October Maria Theresa, now threatened by a hostile coalition of France, Spain, and Bavaria, had to agree to the Convention of Klein-Schnellendorf, by which Frederick was allowed to occupy the whole of Lower Silesia. However, the Habsburg successes against the French and Bavarians that followed so alarmed Frederick that early in 1742 he invaded Moravia, the region south of Silesia, which was under Austrian rule. His rather incomplete victory at Chotusitz in May nonetheless forced Maria Theresa to cede almost all of Silesia by the Treaty of Berlin of 1742 in July. This once more allowed Habsburg forces to be concentrated against France and Bavaria, and 1743 and the early months of 1744 saw Maria Theresa’s position in Germany become markedly stronger. Frederick, again alarmed by this, invaded Bohemia in August 1744 and rapidly overran it. However, by the end of the year lack of French support and threats to his lines of communication had forced him to retreat. Moreover, the elector Augustus III (king of Poland and the elector of Saxony) now joined Maria Theresa in attacking him in Silesia. He was rescued from this threatening situation by the prowess of his army; victories at Hohenfriedberg in June 1745 and at Soor in September were followed by a Prussian invasion of Saxony. The Treaty of Dresden, signed on Dec. 25, 1745, finally established Prussian rule in Silesia and ended for the time being the complex series of struggles that had begun five years earlier.

Silesia was a valuable acquisition, being more developed economically than any other major part of the Hohenzollern dominions. Moreover, military victory had now made Prussia at least a semigreat power and marked Frederick as the most successful ruler in Europe. He was well aware, however, that his situation was far from secure. Maria Theresa was determined to recover Silesia, and the peace she signed with France and Spain at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 allowed her to accelerate significant improvements in the administration of her territories and the organization of her army. Frederick’s alliance with France, which dated from an agreement of June 1741, was based merely on mutual hostility toward the Habsburgs and had never been effective. More serious, anti-Prussian feeling was now running high in Russia, where both the empress Elizabeth, who had ascended the throne in 1741, and her chancellor, Aleksey Bestuzhev-Ryumin, bitterly disliked Frederick. Moreover, Great Britain, under George II, seeking an effective continental ally against France, seemed to be moving closer to Maria Theresa and Elizabeth. In September 1755 Britain signed an agreement with Russia by which Russia, in return for British subsidies, was to provide a large military force in its Baltic provinces to protect, if necessary, the electorate of Hanover, ruled by George II, against possible French or Prussian attack. Frederick was deeply alarmed by this: a hostile Austro-Russian alliance backed by British money seemed to threaten the destruction of Prussia. In January 1756 he attempted to escape from this menacing situation by an agreement with Britain for the neutralization of Germany in the Anglo-French colonial and naval war that had just begun. This, however, deeply antagonized Louis XV and the French government, who saw the agreement as an insulting desertion of France, Frederick’s ostensible ally. The result was the signature in May of a Franco-Austrian defensive alliance. This did not in itself threaten Frederick, but he soon became convinced that a Russo-Austrian attack on him, with French support, was imminent. He determined to forestall his enemies and, in a daring move, invaded Saxony in August 1756 and marched on into Bohemia. This action has been more actively debated by historians than any other event of Frederick’s reign because it raised in an acute form the general issue regarding the morality of preventive military action. Though Frederick took the offensive and thus unleashed a great military struggle, there is no doubt that he was by 1756 seriously threatened, indeed, even more seriously than he himself realized, and that his enemies, most of all the empress Elizabeth, meant to destroy Prussia’s newly won international status.

Accession to the throne and foreign policy » Trials and lessons
The Seven Years’ War, on which he embarked thus soon became a life-and-death struggle. In 1757 France, Sweden, Russia, and many of the smaller German states joined the ranks of his opponents, while the Prussian invasion of Bohemia collapsed after a serious defeat at Kolín in June. Brilliant victories over the French and Austrian armies, respectively, at Rossbach and Leuthen in November and December partially reestablished Frederick’s position, but it still remained extremely precarious. Ruthless exploitation of every available resource (notably of much of Saxony, which was under Prussian military occupation during most of the war), debasement of the currency, and a British subsidy that he received in 1758–62 allowed Frederick with increasing difficulty to keep up the unequal struggle. More than anything, however, he was helped by the complete failure of his enemies to cooperate effectively, while a partly British and British-financed army in western Germany from 1758 onward neutralized the French military effort. Nevertheless, the strain was immense; in October 1757 a cabinet order suspended all payment of salaries and pensions to Prussian civil servants and judges apart from diplomats serving abroad. Frederick could still win victories in the field, as, for example, at Zorndorf (August 1758) against the Russians at heavy cost or at Liegnitz and Torgau (August and November 1760) against the Austrians. But he also suffered serious defeats at Hochkirch in October 1758 and above all at the hands of a Russian army at Kunersdorf in August 1759. This disaster temporarily reduced him to despair and thoughts of suicide; if it had been effectively followed up by his adversaries, he could not have continued the struggle. As the forces he could put in the field dwindled and resistance grew among his subjects to the unprecedented burdens imposed by the war (in 1760 the landowners of Brandenburg refused to contribute further), the Prussian position became increasingly difficult; by 1761 it was desperate. However, the death in January 1762 of the empress Elizabeth, the most bitter of all Frederick’s enemies, completely changed the situation. Her successor, Peter III, a fanatical admirer of Prussia and Frederick, signed an armistice in May, followed by a Russo-Prussian peace treaty. This turn of events ended Maria Theresa’s hopes of recovering Silesia. The Treaty of Hubertusburg (Feb. 15, 1763), which ended the war in Germany, left the province in Frederick’s hands. Prussia had survived, and its military reputation was now greater than ever. The cost had been enormous, however. The Prussian army had lost 180,000 men during the struggle, and some Prussian provinces had been completely devastated.

Henceforth Frederick was determined to avoid another such conflict: the alliance with Russia that he signed in 1764 and which lasted until 1780 was directed largely to this end. Nevertheless, he still firmly opposed any growth of Habsburg power in Germany, and in July 1778 a new Austro-Prussian struggle broke out over the efforts of the emperor Joseph II, the son of Maria Theresa, to gain a large part of Bavaria. This War of the Bavarian Succession was half-hearted and short-lived, and the Treaty of Teschen ending it in May 1779 was a severe check to Joseph’s ambitions and a diplomatic victory for Frederick. But this new conflict showed unmistakably that Austro-Prussian rivalry stemming from the events of 1740–41 was now a deeply ingrained fact of German political life. Fear of Habsburg ambitions continued to haunt Frederick to the end of his reign. His last significant achievement was to inspire the formation, in July 1785, of the League of Princes (Fürstenbund), which united a number of German states—the most important being Hanover, Saxony, and the archbishopric of Mainz—in successful opposition to Joseph II and his renewed efforts to acquire the whole of Bavaria in exchange for the Austrian Netherlands.

Accession to the throne and foreign policy » Partition of Poland
The most important foreign policy development in the second half of Frederick’s reign was the first partition of Poland, in 1772. By this Prussia gained the Polish province of West Prussia (though without the great commercial city of Danzig), and thus Brandenburg and Pomerania, the core of the monarchy, became linked with the theretofore isolated East Prussia. This gave the state a much greater territorial coherence and more defensible frontiers. It also moved its geographic centre decisively to the east and sharpened the social and political differences that tended to separate it from the states of western Europe.

Frederick had always hoped for territorial gains of this kind, and, as the weakness and confusion of the internally divided Polish republic increased during the 1760s, the possibilities of realizing them grew. In 1769 he tried indirectly to interest Catherine II of Russia in a partition but in vain. By January 1771, however, faced by strong Austrian opposition to her expansionist ambitions in southeastern Europe, the empress had changed her mind. The visit to St. Petersburg in that month of Frederick’s younger brother Prince Henry played a decisive role in making a partition possible; the Habsburg government, which had hoped to recover Silesia or gain territory in the Balkans, was persuaded to join in the process. Frederick bears much of the responsibility for the partition, for he alone of the monarchs who took part had consciously desired it. Since both Russia and Austria were persuaded to follow a policy that was largely Prussian in inspiration, it ranks as perhaps his greatest diplomatic success.

Domestic policies
In administrative, economic, and social policy Frederick’s attitudes were essentially conservative. Much of what he did in these areas was little more than a development of policies pursued by his father. He justified these policies in terms of the rationalizing rhetoric of “enlightened despotism,” whereas the devoutly Protestant Frederick William I had done so in terms of religious obligation, but many of the objectives, and the means used to attain them, were the same. Frederick, in spite of his appalling personal relationship with his father, admired him as a ruler and freely acknowledged the debt he owed him. “Only his care,” he wrote during the Seven Years’ War, “his untiring work, his scrupulously just policies, his great and admirable thriftiness and the strict discipline he introduced into the army which he himself had created, made possible the achievements I have so far accomplished.”

Like Frederick William I, Frederick thought of kingship as a duty. To him it entailed obligations to be met only by untiring and conscientious work. It was his duty to protect his subjects from foreign attack, to make them prosperous, to give them efficient and honest administration, and to provide them with laws that were simple and adapted to their wants and their particular temperament. In order to achieve these objectives, the ruler must sacrifice his own interests and any purely personal or family feeling. Raison d’état, the needs of the state, took precedence over these and also over the immediate comfort and happiness of his subjects. The ruler could carry out his duties effectively only if he kept the reins of government firmly in his own hands. His rule must be personal. He must not rely on ministers who were likely to be influenced by selfish ambitions or factional feeling and who might well keep important information from their master if they were allowed to. Personal rule alone could produce the unity and consistency essential to any successful policy. In his Anti-Machiavel, a somewhat conventional discussion of the principles of good government published in 1740 just before his accession, Frederick wrote that there were two sorts of princes—those who ruled in person and those who merely relied on subordinates. The former were “like the soul of a state” and “the weight of their government falls on themselves alone, like the world on the back of Atlas,” whereas the second group were mere phantoms. Yet he would have rejected outright, and on the whole with justification, any suggestion that he ruled as a despot. On the contrary, he would have claimed that his power, however great, was exercised only within limits set by law and that the obligations inherent in his position made it impossible for him to govern in an arbitrary way.

Domestic policies » Problems of autocracy
The insistence that any effective monarchical rule must be intensely personal had obvious potential dangers. As Frederick grew older, these showed themselves with increasing clarity. His whole psychology was hostile to the development in the Prussian administration or army of any real originality, new ideas, or willingness to take initiatives or accept individual responsibilities. He fostered among those who served him a tendency to play safe and to perform their duties conscientiously but to do no more than that. Under him the Prussian administration was the most honest and hardworking in Europe. Its achievements, however, stemmed from the impetus supplied from above by the king rather than from any creative force inherent in the system itself. The provincial War and Domains Chambers established by Frederick William I in 1722 remained very important, and their number grew from 9 to 12. The General Directory, again created by Frederick William, as the main organ of central government with wide-ranging powers, acquired under Frederick several new departments (for commerce and manufactures in 1740, for mines and metallurgy in 1768, for forestry a few years later) but tended, as the reign went on, to become ossified and to lose a good deal of its former importance. The administration of Silesia after its acquisition in the 1740s was notably efficient, and its resources helped greatly in carrying Frederick through the dark days of the Seven Years’ War. But tradition and continuity rather than innovation were the hallmarks of the Prussian administration under him; many of what new departures there were (for example, an effort in 1770 to introduce a system of state examinations for entry into the civil service) were not very effective. Many of the truly successful innovations were in the judicial system, where the reforming efforts of Samuel von Cocceji resulted in all judges in higher and appellate courts being appointed only after they had passed a rigorous examination. Cocceji also inspired the establishment in 1750 of a new Superior Consistory to supervise church and educational affairs and began the process of legal codification that culminated after Frederick’s death in the issue of the Prussian Common Law (Das Allgemeine Preussische Landrecht) of 1794, one of the most important 18th-century efforts of this kind. Yet Frederick’s unwillingness ever to admit a mistake or change his mind tended, as he grew older, to make the processes of government increasingly rigid and inflexible. The government’s refusal to adapt and adjust, which was already visible during the monarch’s later years, culminated in the Prussian collapse of 1806 before the armies of Napoleon.

Domestic policies » Army and the state
The overriding objective of Frederick’s rule was to increase the power of the state. His desire to foster education and cultural life was sincere, but these humanitarian goals were secondary compared with the task of building a great army and gaining the financial resources needed to maintain it. The army was the pivot around which all else turned, and the administrative system existed essentially to recruit, feed, equip, and pay it. In proportion to the resources available to support it, its size was unequaled anywhere in Europe. In 1740 Frederick inherited a standing army of 83,000 men; when he died, this figure had risen to 190,000 (though of these only about 80,000 were Prussian subjects). Under him it remained a force of peasants and of numerous foreign recruits obtained often by outright kidnapping, officered by landowners. In Prussia the army was recruited almost entirely in the countryside; the function of townsmen was to pay for it through their taxes, not to serve in it. Up to a point Frederick tried to protect the peasants and the soldiers against the demands of the Junker landlord-officers. In 1749 and 1764 he issued decrees limiting the obligations of the peasant to his lord, and in 1748 he ordered officers not to treat their men “like serfs”; but these were essentially efforts to prevent the plight of the peasant from becoming so desperate that he would be driven into flight and thus jeopardize the supply of recruits. Throughout Frederick’s reign, army service was for the majority of his subjects the most onerous of all the burdens imposed by the state. In order to finance the great army, heavy demands were made on territories that for the most part were poor. Nothing, however, seemed more important to the monarch than amassing a large reserve of cash to be used for the recruitment of men in case of war. The financial demands that a serious conflict would make were constantly on his mind, and the desperate struggles of 1756–62 confirmed him in his beliefs.

Much of the tax system, based on the excise (largely a tax on food) paid by the towns and the contribution (a complex property tax) raised in the countryside, supplemented by the profits of the extensive royal domains, remained essentially unchanged. Still, Frederick experimented with a number of new taxes, notably with a new system of taxing tobacco and some less important commodities (introduced in 1766 under the supervision of a French entrepreneur, Le Haye de Launay), but these innovations did not bring about significant changes. Indeed, many of Frederick’s fiscal policies were ill-judged; for example, the maintenance of a great reserve of cash, which removed from circulation much of the liquid capital of a poor society, was economically damaging. Yet strict control of expenditure and relatively efficient tax collection meant that the government, unlike many others of the age, was never hamstrung by lack of money.

Frederick’s economic policies were squarely in the mercantilist tradition. “The foundation of trade and manufactures,” he wrote in his Testament Politique of 1752, “is to prevent money leaving the country and to make it come in.” The direct and simplistic way in which these ideas were sometimes applied can be seen in an order of 1747 forbidding individuals to take more than 300 thalers in specie out of their territories. So far as possible Prussia was to avoid importing foreign manufactured goods, and to this end domestic producers were to be helped by privileges and even outright grants of money. Exports were to be encouraged in the same way. In particular, much money was spent on efforts to develop a substantial silk industry, with generally disappointing results. By the end of the reign textiles of all kinds accounted for two-thirds of Prussia’s industrial production, and the textile industry employed about 90 percent of the industrial labour force, but this situation owed little to Frederick’s economic policies. Efforts to foster the production of porcelain—which, like silk, was one of the industrial status symbols of a number of 18th-century rulers—were also costly and not very effective. A small number of favoured industrialists, notably David Splitgerber and Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky in the 1750s, benefited by these policies, but for Prussia as a whole they were largely a misuse of resources. Other new creations such as the Maritime Trading Company (Seehandlung), a government-backed corporation set up in 1772 to develop overseas trade, and even the Royal Bank of Berlin, established in 1765, were also marginal to the economic life of Frederick’s territories, which, except to some extent in Silesia, in the area around Berlin, and in the little county of Mark in western Germany, continued to be based on agriculture.

Some of the state’s programs, however, achieved real success, though sometimes at high cost. Most important was the sustained effort, in the 1760s and ’70s, to attract immigrants and to settle them on waste or depopulated land; this settlement program formed the central feature of the rétablissement, the making good of the losses of the Seven Years’ War. During Frederick’s reign more than 300,000 settlers were attracted to Prussia from other parts of Europe—a substantial addition to a population that in 1740 had numbered only about 2,200,000. In addition, the army provided a large market for arms and woolen cloth for uniforms and thus did something to stimulate economic growth. Moreover, in peacetime the soldiers served with their regiments only for a few months of the year, spending the remaining part in agriculture or some urban employment. The fact that they were in this way integrated into society helped to offset the burden that so great a military effort placed on the economy.

Frederick’s social policies were as conservative as his economic ones. He considered the nobility the most important class in Prussian society. From it were drawn the majority of the army officers and virtually all the higher-ranking ones. It also produced the majority of his officials and all his ministers and completely dominated local government in the countryside. In Frederick’s eyes, the nobility alone of all the social groups had a sense of personal honour and responsibility. The continued existence of the state depended on it, and the regime could not function without its cooperation. Thus its interests were always to be safeguarded. In particular, it was not to be diluted by the grant of noble status to self-made bourgeois, and land owned by noble families was to be protected against purchase by members of the urban middle class, however wealthy. Frederick stated these ideas repeatedly in his voluminous writings on statecraft, notably in the political testaments of 1752 and 1768 drawn up for his successor. Given this attitude, it is not surprising that his reign saw little practical improvement for the peasantry, much of which, in Pomerania, Brandenburg, and East Prussia, was still personally unfree, owing labour services to noble landowners. In principle, Frederick sincerely disliked serfdom. In practice, however, he realized that any rapid move against it risked the disruption of Prussia’s agricultural life and the erosion of the position of the all-important nobility. His efforts to improve the lot of his peasant subjects were therefore little more than gestures. As part of his commitment to stimulate recovery from the losses of the Seven Years’ War, he tried to abolish serfdom in Prussian Pomerania and also to give the peasantry of Upper Silesia greater security of tenure, but none of this had much practical effect because he never contemplated any significant change in the social order.

Frederick prided himself on being, among rulers, the leading representative of the high culture of his day. He was a prolific writer on contemporary history and politics; his Histoire de mon temps (1746) is still a source of some value for the period it covers. He produced large quantities of mediocre poetry and composed music. He invited to Prussia several of the leading French intellectuals of the age, notably Voltaire (with whom he soon quarreled). But here again his outlook was essentially conservative. Culture to him meant French culture: he wrote and spoke French by preference, using German only when necessary. He had no interest in the profound intellectual stirrings occurring in Germany. Berlin under him never became an important intellectual centre. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, perhaps the greatest German writer of the mid-18th century, described Prussia as “the most slavish country in Europe,” and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, the most distinguished of the musicians serving Frederick, did so rather reluctantly. Frederick’s religious tolerance, however, was genuine: it was one of the things that helped to mark him in the eyes of contemporaries as a truly enlightened ruler. The abolition of judicial torture, one of his first acts as king, also showed his genuine belief in this aspect of enlightened reform. On an even more fundamental level, the General Education Regulations (General-Landschul-Reglement) of 1763 attempted to create a system of universal primary education throughout the Prussian monarchy. Lack of resources limited its practical effect, but it was the most ambitious effort of the kind theretofore seen anywhere in Europe.

Significance of Frederick’s reign
Both by his accomplishments and by his example Frederick deeply influenced the course of German history. In the struggles of the 1740s and ’50s he weakened still further the tottering structure of the Holy Roman Empire. The bitter Austro-Prussian rivalry that he began was to be a dominant political force in Germany and central Europe for well over a century. Not until the final Prussian victory over Austria in 1866 was the long contest for leadership in Germany finally resolved. For his share in creating the division of the German world Frederick was later attacked, sometimes bitterly, by a number of historians who saw him as having prevented the emergence of a united Great Germany that included all the major German-speaking areas of Europe. Certainly, he had no sympathy, and indeed no understanding, for the embryonic German nationalism. The efforts of some writers of the 19th and 20th centuries to present him as a forerunner of German national unity are quite misleading. His renewed attack on Maria Theresa of Austria in 1744, for example, frustrated an Austrian invasion of Alsace and its possible return from French to German control, and during the Seven Years’ War he offered more than once to cede to France territory in western Germany in the hope of breaking up the coalition that threatened him. Moreover, by his part in the first partition of Poland he helped to create an important common interest with Russia: thenceforth both states had as one of their major objectives the suppression, or at least the strict control, of Polish nationalist aspirations. For generations to come this was to be a factor turning Prussia’s attention to eastern Europe and making it less Western in some of its political attitudes than might otherwise have been the case. Yet in many ways Frederick deserved the admiration that later generations, especially in Germany, increasingly felt for him. For all his social and intellectual conservatism he never ceased to feel himself in sympathy with the enlightened intellectual currents and political strivings of the age and with their tolerant and humanitarian aspects. Building on the foundations laid by his father, he consolidated a Prussian ethos of duty, effort, and discipline that, despite some serious negative features, was to become for several generations one of the major political traditions of Europe.

Matthew Smith Anderson




Seven Years’ War
European history
(1756–63), the last major conflict before the French Revolution to involve all the great powers of Europe. Generally, France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and Russia were aligned on one side against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain on the other. The war arose out of the attempt of the Austrian Habsburgs to win back the rich province of Silesia, which had been wrested from them by Frederick II the Great of Prussia during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48). But the Seven Years’ War also involved overseas colonial struggles between Great Britain and France, the main points of contention between these two traditional rivals being the struggle for control of North America (see French and Indian War) and India. Britain’s alliance with Prussia was undertaken partly in order to protect electoral Hanover, the British ruling dynasty’s continental possession, from the threat of a French takeover.

The hostilities of the Seven Years’ War were immediately preceded by a reversal of traditional alliances in Europe. Austria had long been friendly toward Britain and hostile toward France, but because Austria seemed unlikely to protect Hanover from French or Prussian aggression, Britain in January 1756 allied itself with Prussia to obtain such security. In response, an outraged France contracted an alliance with Austria that was soon joined by Russia. This alignment of Austria with France and of Great Britain with Prussia marked a reversal of longstanding enmity between those countries in what became known as the “Diplomatic Revolution.”

By the summer of 1756, the major powers of the Austrian-led alliance were poised for an attack on Prussia. Frederick the Great, a believer in attacking first, invaded Saxony on August 29 to detach that country from its alliance with the Austrians. He occupied Saxony’s capital, Dresden, and the Saxon forces capitulated not long after. In the spring of 1757 Frederick again advanced south into Bohemia, defeating the Austrians at the Battle of Prague on May 6, 1757. A month later, however, he was forced to retreat from Bohemia, having suffered a heavy defeat on June 18 at the hands of the Austrian field marshal Leopold Joseph, Count von Daun, in the Battle of Kolin.

Frederick now faced a war on several fronts. In the west the French defeated a Hanoverian army led by the Duke of Cumberland, a younger son of Britain’s King George II, and in September they forced Cumberland to disband his army. The French then advanced on Prussia’s western frontier. Furthermore, Sweden attacked Prussian Pomerania after having joined the Austrian alliance in March. A Russian army entered East Prussia in July and won a major victory there in August, and Austria moved on Silesia. Gambling for success against France and her allies, Frederick met a Franco-German army at Rossbach in Thuringia on November 5 and, although outnumbered two to one, fought a two-hour battle that cost his enemies 7,000 men as against 550 Prussian troops. He then turned to meet the Austrians in Silesia and, again heavily outnumbered, won his greatest victory at Leuthen on December 5.

In April 1758 the British government under William Pitt the Elder signed a new treaty with Prussia providing it with much-needed financial support, and on June 23 an Anglo-Hanoverian army defeated a much larger French force at Krefeld. Pitt realized the importance of the colonial theatres of the war and devoted most of Britain’s military and naval efforts to achieving success against the French in India and, especially, North America. In the meantime, Frederick beat back the Russians in a bloody battle at Zorndorf on August 25, but his attempt to save Saxony from the Austrians was only partially successful, and he was forced to retreat into Silesia. The Austrian and Russian armies operating in the east were finally able to link up in the summer of 1759, and when Frederick attacked them at Kunersdorf, east of Frankfurt, on Aug. 12, 1759, he suffered a disastrous defeat, losing 18,000 men in six hours of battle and watching Daun take Dresden.

The main fighting in 1760 took place in Silesia, where Frederick scored marginal victories against the Austrians at Liegnitz (now Legnica) and Torgau but remained hopelessly on the defensive. By December 1761 Frederick, his armies all but exhausted by a series of rapid maneuvers against multiple enemies, was near despair. But at that point, the death of the Russian empress Elizabeth saved him. Her successor, Tsar Peter III, was an admirer of Prussia and not only made peace with Frederick but also mediated a peace between Prussia and Sweden and finally joined Frederick in an effort to oust the Austrians from Silesia. Though Peter was soon afterward assassinated, his successor, Catherine II the Great, did not renew hostilities against Prussia. Frederick then drove the Austrians from Silesia while his ally, Ferdinand of Brunswick, won victories over the French at Wilhelmsthal and over the Saxons at Lutterberg and captured the important town of Göttingen.

The principal theatre of war in the German states now quieted, but the fighting for empire continued overseas in the Americas, the West Indies, Africa, and India, with Britain winning some important victories. By late 1762 the end of the war was in sight. Austria saw nothing to be gained from continuing its struggle against Prussia without Russian support. France had no interest in further supporting a war over Silesia, and Britain came to similar conclusions about supporting Prussia. By the Franco-British Treaty of Paris (Feb. 10, 1763), Britain won North America and India and became the undisputed leader in overseas colonization. Five days later at the Treaty of Hubertusburg, Frederick maintained his possession of Silesia and confirmed Prussia’s stature as a major European power.

Encyclopaedia Britannica



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