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The World Wars and Interwar Period 



The first half of the 20th century saw the world entangled in two global wars, conducted with an unprecedented brutality. The First World War developed from a purely European affair into a conflict involving the colonies and the United States. It altered Europe's political landscape and shifted the power balance worldwide. In World War II, the nations of Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa were drawn into the conflict through the aggressive policies of an ambitious Nazi Germany. The war was conducted with the most up-to-date weapons technology and cost the lives of more than 55 million people. The Holocaust, the systematic annihilation of the European Jews, represented an unparalleled moral catastrophe for modern civilization.


Pablo Picasso "Weeping Woman", 1937




France: Insecurity and Occupation 



Despite victory in World War I, France still felt threatened by its German neighbor. Politically unstable at home and weakened by the war, France initially saw its security as guaranteed only through the pursuit of a "harsh course" against its "traditional enemy." However, in the face of Hitler's aggressive power politics in the 1930s, France seemed almost paralyzed. After the Blitzkrieg in 1940, the German army occupied the north of France and the French Vichy regime collaborated with the Germans.


The Vichy Government, 1940-1944

After Germany's occupation of half of France in May 1940, a German-friendly government based in the town of Vichy was set up to administer the unoccupied regions.


France declared war on Germany after Hitler's invasion of Poland on September 3,1939, but still refrained from active military engagement, relying on the elaborate fortifications of the Maginot Line.

Then in May 1940, German troops suddenly 2 marched through Belgium into France.

2 Victory parade of German
troops through Paris, 1940

German troops entering Paris June 14, 1940



Victory parade of German troops through Paris, 1940

Victory parade of German troops through Paris, 1940



Victory parade of German troops through Paris, 1940


Paris June 14, 1940


Hitler in Paris


The French were stunned by the rapid advance, known as blitzkrieg ("lightning war"), and resistance broke down after only six weeks; 1 Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain asked for a ceasefire on June 16,1940.

In order to humiliate France, the resultant 4 treaty was signed in a railway carriage in the woods of Compiegne—the same place where the French had forced the armistice on the Germans in 1918 to end World War I.

The Third Republic had fallen apart.

While German troops occupied the north and west of France, including Paris, an Etat Francais was established in Vichy, in France's unoccupied south. This authoritarian government saw itself as a partner of the German Nazi regime but was recognized by the United States and the Soviet Union, among others.

The 84-year-old Petain became head of state with considerable power at his disposal; his deputy was 3 Pierre Laval, whom Petain had arrested at the end of 1940 because he had argued for entry into the war on the side of the Germans.

1 Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain

4 Armistice of Compiegne: The historic train
carriage, where the German surrender in the
First World War was signed, is used for the
French surrender, 1940

3 Vichy leaders Henri-Philippe Petain
and Pierre Laval (right), 1942

Despite extensive compromises, the Vichy regime continued to come under increasing German pressure. In April 1942, Laval was installed as prime minister and took over the leadership of the state.

In the wake of the Allied landings in North Africa, the German army occupied the remainder of France, turning the Vichy regime into a fascist police state.

From the summer of 1942 onward, the French police played a substantial role in the 5 deportation of French Jews to death camps.

The Allied invasions at Normandy on June 6,1944 and on the Mediterranean coasts led to the collapse of the Vichy regime and the liberation of Paris.

5 Arrested Jews are loaded onto a truck by the German SS
and the French police, ca. 1942



The Resistance and the Rise of Charles de Gaulle

The French leader in exile, General Charles de Gaulle, united small resistance groups into a powerful political force in 1943. This formed a provisional French government directly after the Allied liberation in 1944.


After the occupation of Paris by the German army, French fighters—the Resistance—organized in small groups and waged war through 7 acts of sabotage and strikes against the occupiers and the Vichy collaborators; they also aided the politically or racially persecuted to flee.

The Germans dealt harshly with the insurgents: A total of about 30,000 Resistance fighters were executed, and 75,000 died in concentration camps.

In 1944, German SS troops wiped out the village of 6 Oradour-sur-Glane as a retaliatory measure for partisan attacks.

In exile in London, 11 General Charles de Gaulle had in 1940 already formed the 8 Free French movement, which saw itself as the legitimate representative of France, and built a government in exile—receiving a death sentence in absentia for high treason from the Vichy government.

11 General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC during the war.

8 Meeting of the Free French movement in
Algiers, 1943

In May 1943 de Gaulle united the different factions of the resistance, such as Combat and Franc-Tireur, into a National Council of the Resistance. At the same time, the exile government moved to Algiers and recruited North African freedom fighters for the insurgency.

The Resistance supported the advance of the Allied troops after their landing in Normandy in June 1944. They organized a revolt in Paris on August 18,1944, shortly before the Allies arrived in the capital. A week later, de Gaulle entered Paris.

The National Council of the 10 Resistance was then recognized by the Allies as the provisional government.

The French Resistance 10 A rebellion in Paris by French resistance fighters, 1944

The French Resistance

The French Resistance

The French Resistance

De Gaulle was able to unite the somewhat conservative members of the government in exile with the left-wing, and frequently communist, resistance movement.

Pierre Laval was executed in October 1945: Marshal Petain was sentenced to death but was later pardoned and exiled to the island of You.

Acts of mob violence, ineluding lynchings, against citizens suspected of collaboration were frequent, particularly against 9 women thought to have "fraternized" with Germans.

9 A woman suspected of collaboration
has her head shaved in public, 1944



Charles de Gaulle
Broadcasting from
London, June 18,1940

"I invite the officers and the French soldiers who are located in British territory or who would come there... to put themselves in contact with me.

Whatever happens, the flame of the French resistance must not he extinguished and will not be extinguished. Tomorrow, as today, I will speak on Radio London."

Free French Generals Henri Giraud (left) and Charles de Gaulle sit down
after shaking hands in presence of Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill
(Casablanca Conference, 14 January 1943).




Charles de Gaulle

General de Gaulle

president of France
in full Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle

born November 22, 1890, Lille, France
died November 9, 1970, Colombey-les-deux-Églises

French soldier, writer, statesman, and architect of France’s Fifth Republic.

Education and early career
De Gaulle was the second son of a Roman Catholic, patriotic, and nationalist upper-middle-class family. The family had produced historians and writers, and his father taught philosophy and literature; but, as a boy, de Gaulle already showed a passionate interest in military matters. He attended the Military Academy of Saint-Cyr, and in 1913, as a young second lieutenant, he joined an infantry regiment commanded by Colonel Philippe Pétain.

De Gaulle was an intelligent, hardworking, and zealous young soldier and, in his military career, a man of original mind, great self-assurance, and outstanding courage. In World War I he fought at Verdun, was three times wounded and three times mentioned in dispatches, and spent two years and eight months as a prisoner of war (during which time he made five unsuccessful attempts to escape). After a brief visit to Poland as a member of a military mission, a year’s teaching at Saint-Cyr, and a two-year course of special training in strategy and tactics at the École Supérieure de Guerre (War College), he was promoted by Marshal Pétain in 1925 to the staff of the Supreme War Council. From 1927 to 1929 de Gaulle served as a major in the army occupying the Rhineland and could see for himself both the potential danger of German aggression and the inadequacy of the French defense. He also spent two years in the Middle East and then, having been promoted to lieutenant colonel, spent four years as a member of the secretariat of the National Defense Council.

De Gaulle’s writing career began with a study of the relations between the civil and military powers in Germany (La Discorde chez l’ennemi, 1924; “Discord Among the Enemy”), followed by lectures on his conception of leadership, Le Fil de l’épée (1932; The Edge of the Sword). A study on military theory, Vers l’armée de métier (1934; The Army of the Future), defended the idea of a small professional army, highly mechanized and mobile, in preference to the static theories exemplified by the Maginot Line, which was intended to protect France against German attack. He also wrote a memorandum in which he tried, even as late as January 1940, to convert politicians to his way of thinking. His views made him unpopular with his military superiors, and the question of his right to publish under his name a historical study, La France et son armée (1938; France and Her Army), led to a dispute with Marshal Pétain.

General de Gaulle

World War II
At the outbreak of World War II, de Gaulle commanded a tank brigade attached to the French Fifth Army. In May 1940, after assuming command as temporary brigadier general in the 4th Armoured Division—the rank that he retained for the rest of his life—he twice had the opportunity to apply his theories on tank warfare. He was mentioned as “an admirable, energetic, and courageous leader.” On June 6 he entered the government of Paul Reynaud as undersecretary of state for defense and war, and he undertook several missions to England to explore the possibilities of continuing the war. When the Reynaud government was replaced 10 days later by that of Marshal Pétain, who intended to seek an armistice with the Germans, de Gaulle left for England. On June 18 he broadcast from London his first appeal to his compatriots to continue the war under his leadership. On August 2, 1940, a French military court tried and sentenced him in absentia to death, deprivation of military rank, and confiscation of property.

De Gaulle entered his wartime career as a political leader with tremendous liabilities. He had only a handful of haphazardly recruited political supporters and volunteers for what were to become the Free French Forces. He had no political status and was virtually unknown in both Britain and France. But he had an absolute belief in his mission and a conviction that he possessed the qualities of leadership. He was totally devoted to France and had the strength of character (or obstinacy, as it often appeared to the British) to fight for French interests as he saw them with all the resources at his disposal.

In his country, to the politicians on the political left, a career officer who was a practicing Roman Catholic was not an immediately acceptable political leader, while to those on the right he was a rebel against Pétain, who was a national hero and France’s only field marshal. Broadcasts from London, the action of the Free French Forces, and the contacts of resistance groups in France either with de Gaulle’s own organization or with those of the British secret services brought national recognition of his leadership; but full recognition by his allies came only after the liberation of Paris in August 1944.

In London de Gaulle’s relations with the British government were never easy, and de Gaulle often added to the strain, at times through his own misjudgment or touchiness. In 1943 he moved his headquarters to Algiers, where he became president of the French Committee of National Liberation, at first jointly with General Henri Giraud. De Gaulle’s successful campaign to edge out Giraud gave the world proof of his skill in political maneuvering.

Early political career
On September 9, 1944, de Gaulle and his shadow government returned from Algiers to Paris. There he headed two successive provisional governments, but on January 20, 1946, he abruptly resigned, apparently because of his irritation with the political parties forming the coalition government.

In November 1946 the Fourth French Republic was declared, and until 1958 de Gaulle campaigned against its constitution, which, he charged, was likely to reproduce the political and governmental inadequacies of the Third Republic. In 1947 he formed the Rally of the French People (Rassemblement du Peuple Français; RPF), a mass movement that grew rapidly in strength and that to all intents and purposes became a political party during the elections of 1951, when it won 120 seats in the National Assembly. The movement expressed de Gaulle’s hostility to the constitution, to the party system, and, in particular, to the French Communists, because of their unswerving loyalty to directives from Moscow. He became dissatisfied with the RPF, however, and in 1953 severed his connection with it. In 1955 it was disbanded.

The general made no public appearances in 1955–56 and retired to his home in Colombey-les-deux-Églises, where he worked on his memoirs: L’Appel, 1940–1942 (1954; The Call to Honour, 1940–1942), L’Unité, 1942–1944 (1956; Unity, 1942–1944), and Le Salut, 1944–1946 (1959; Salvation, 1944–1946). The last volume was completed only after his return to power in 1958.

French President Charles de Gaulle and
U.S. President John Kennedy

Return to public life
De Gaulle’s compatriots were deeply divided on the question of his return to public life. The reasons for their hesitation belong to the political history of the period. The opportunity presented itself in May 1958 when the insurrection that had broken out in Algiers threatened to bring civil war to France. De Gaulle must have seen his return to politics as the most carefully balanced calculation in a life that had had its share of political gambles. He was cautious, for it was by no means certain that the French parliament would accept his return on conditions that he could accept. He affirmed his determination not to come to power by other than legal means, and there was never any evidence of his association with insurgent plans to bring him back; however, his carefully worded statements (on May 15, 19, and 27) certainly helped the insurgents. On June 1, three days after President René Coty threatened to resign unless de Gaulle’s return to power was accepted, de Gaulle presented himself before the National Assembly as a prime minister designate. On the following day he attended the parliamentary session (after he was duly invested as prime minister) that authorized him to reform the constitution and accorded him the special powers that he demanded.

On December 21, 1958, de Gaulle was elected president of the republic. The powers given to the president in the new constitution, which had been approved by referendum on September 28, 1958, especially those providing for the use of the referendum and for presidential rule during a state of emergency, reflected his firm conviction that a strong state required a leader with the power to make decisions. De Gaulle realized that his fellow citizens would accept him only in a crisis and that he must, therefore, take steps to retain the support of the general public and to disarm the power of “the system of parties” in parliament, always potentially hostile to him. His tactics were first to obtain consent for the personal control of government policy by the president and then to ensure its renewal through elections or referenda. He therefore undertook throughout his presidency what was virtually a continuous election campaign in the form of provincial tours, in which he visited every département and during which he met ordinary citizens as well as local notables. He appeared on television several times a year. He relied as far as possible on ministers who were compagnons—those whose loyalties went back to the wartime days—and counted on their use of the constitutional provisions to curb the powers of the deputies to obstruct parliamentary business or harass governments.

De Gaulle retained the essential function of parliaments in a democracy—namely, the right to criticize governments and to withdraw confidence in them. There were frequent complaints of progovernmental bias on the radio, but these also had been common under pre-Gaullist regimes. Under a law of 1881, insults to the president of the republic constitute an offense, and, while there was certainly more recourse to this law during de Gaulle’s presidency than under previous regimes, it presented no obstacle to political criticisms of Gaullist policies and Gaullist ministers in the press and by political parties. Indeed, those criticisms were continual and widespread.

De Gaulle’s greatest challenge in his early years as president was to find a way to resolve the bloody and extraordinarily divisive Algerian War. France’s influential left-wing intellectuals supported Algerian independence and wanted de Gaulle to find a face-saving way to end the war quickly. The European residents of Algeria and their many supporters on the mainland, most of them politically conservative, wanted France to retain Algeria at all costs. The leaders of the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN), meanwhile, were willing to discuss nothing short of full independence. De Gaulle realized that he had no choice but to end the war, and, when he began peace negotiations with the FLN, French military leaders in Algiers turned against him, forming a rebel faction known as the Secret Army Organization (OAS).

In April 1961 the OAS seized control of Algiers and threatened to take Paris as well. De Gaulle responded vigorously, using the emergency powers permitted by the constitution of the Fifth Republic. Most French citizens rallied to de Gaulle, and after a tense standoff the OAS action fell apart. The bulk of the military refused to side with the rebellious generals, and de Gaulle’s peace initiative was allowed to proceed. The bloodletting, however, was not over. The OAS, now a full-fledged terrorist organization, undertook a wave of bombings and assassinations (including attempts on de Gaulle) that left some 12,000 victims. But the overwhelming majority of the population supported de Gaulle, allowing him to negotiate Algerian independence (1962) and defeat the OAS.

Having been preoccupied with Algeria during his first three years, de Gaulle was finally in a position to turn to other pressing matters. Beginning in 1962, he moved to strengthen the country’s economy, planned the reorganization of the army, developed an independent nuclear deterrent, and prevented fresh “Algerias” in the future by providing for the constitutional transformation of the African overseas territories into 12 politically independent states. From mid-1962 onward, however, with the recognition of an independent Algerian state, he had to consolidate his own position by obtaining a fresh vote of confidence from the electorate, for he was no longer politically indispensable.

One lesson that de Gaulle had learned was that his personal position was stronger if he remained, at least in theory, above the political and party battle, as he had tried to do during the wartime and early postwar years. Before the elections of 1958, he had therefore forbidden his supporters to use his name, “even in the form of an adjective,” in the title of any group or candidate. In 1962 he offered the electors the choice between his resignation and acceptance of a constitutional amendment providing for the election of the president by universal suffrage. Under the original constitution, the president was to be chosen by an electoral college of some 80,000 members, mainly mayors and local leaders. The electors favoured the amendment overwhelmingly. During the parliamentary general election in November, the Gaullist party won an additional 64 seats, thus obtaining, with the support of some 30 conservative deputies, a majority in the National Assembly. From then on, de Gaulle was in a position to carry out, with public consent, the plans that he regarded as essential in restoring France to the status of a great power.

As a statesman, de Gaulle fought his political battles like a military campaign, using all the devices that he had learned to transform France’s postwar international position of weakness into one of strength and to overcome opposition to his plans at home. These devices have been often described by his fellow citizens: “egoism, pride, aloofness, guile,” according to sociologist and historian Raymond Aron; “empiricism, intuition, flexibility of mind if not of soul,” according to one of the most perceptive of his biographers, Jean Lacouture.

From 1962 until his reelection as president in 1965, de Gaulle used the European Economic Community (EEC; now part of the European Union) to serve French interests, especially agricultural interests. France’s participation in the supranational North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was progressively withdrawn, because de Gaulle’s policy for France was one of “national independence” and of international cooperation based only on agreements between nation-states. This was the main theme of his presidential campaign in 1965. On December 21 he was reelected, though only on the second ballot, after facing a surprisingly strong challenge from the Socialist Franƈois Mitterrand. On March 7, 1966, de Gaulle announced France’s withdrawal from the integrated military command of NATO but not from the alliance.

During the remainder of his second term as president, de Gaulle turned his attention increasingly to wider fields. He had already begun a policy of “détente and cooperation” with countries behind the Iron Curtain by encouraging trade and cultural relations with the Soviet Union and the countries of eastern Europe and by recognizing the People’s Republic of China in January 1964. As a solution for the Vietnam War, he advocated a policy of neutrality for all nations concerned, based on a negotiated peace of which a necessary preliminary was to be the withdrawal of all U.S. troops from Vietnam. These activities, together with visits to Canada, the Far East, and all of Latin America, formed part of a policy that aimed at increasing the influence of France, first in French-speaking countries or countries that shared some bond derived from a common attachment to Latin culture, then in Europe, which, in his view, would sooner or later extend beyond the boundaries of the EEC or the division into Western and Eastern blocs, and finally in the world, where he foresaw the gradual dissolution of the two great blocs.

Circumstances worked against his success. He felt obliged to take up attitudes that were generally interpreted as anti-American. His theory of “desatellization,” the progressive loosening of the Soviet hold on the countries of eastern Europe, was brutally invalidated by the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Moreover, there was no evidence that France carried any real weight with the countries that it hoped to influence. As the political and economic crisis of May 1968 revealed, France had neither the internal cohesion nor the financial resources to play the role of leader in what de Gaulle called “Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals.”

His strength had been in his appeal for unity against a common enemy—in 1940, Germany; in 1958, subversion and civil disorder. In the students’ and workers’ revolt of May 1968, the enemy was once again subversion and civil disorder, but the rapid collapse of the revolt and the divisions within the left that it revealed made de Gaulle seem less indispensable than in the past. The solution to the underlying causes of the revolt required the patient negotiation of a government rather than leadership by a man of destiny. A broadcast on May 30 brought a massive demonstration of support and a landslide Gaullist victory in the subsequent election, but the victory was for peace and normality rather than for the president and his policies.

When in April 1969 de Gaulle called once again for a referendum, it was not clear whether he really wanted to remain in power. The referendum, calling for the acceptance of regional reorganization and a reform of the Senate, was presented to voters, as other referenda had been, as a choice between acceptance of the measures (though the second was generally unpopular) or of his own resignation. The diplomatic methods that had been welcomed during his first term as assertions of France’s claim to equality with and influence among the great powers now created great unease. His advocacy of neutrality on Vietnam in 1966 was widely interpreted as an expression of personal anti-Americanism. On his visit to Canada in 1967, he seemed actively to encourage French Canadian separatism. His declarations of neutrality in the 1967 Arab-Israeli war seemed to show a pro-Arab bias. France had not formally withdrawn from NATO, and the so-called independent nuclear deterrent that he sought was neither independent nor within France’s means. The question “After de Gaulle, who?” was answered by the president himself when he dismissed Georges Pompidou in 1968 after a record six years as prime minister. This left Pompidou free to present himself as a credible and acceptable successor to de Gaulle.

On April 28, 1969, following his defeat in the referendum, de Gaulle resigned and returned to Colombey-les-deux-Églises to retire permanently and to resume writing his memoirs. There he died of a heart attack the following year. His aims and actions as president have drawn more exegesis and speculation than those of any other French statesman.

Dorothy M. Pickles

Encyclopaedia Britannica



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