Visual History of the World

(CONTENTS)
 

 


HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION & CULTURE

From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
Prehistory
First Empires
The Ancient World
The Middle Ages
The Early Modern Period
The Modern Era
The World Wars and Interwar Period
The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists

 






The World Wars and Interwar Period 

1914-1945


 


The first half of the 20th century saw the world entangled in two global wars, conducted with an unprecedented brutality. The First World War developed from a purely European affair into a conflict involving the colonies and the United States. It altered Europe's political landscape and shifted the power balance worldwide. In World War II, the nations of Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa were drawn into the conflict through the aggressive policies of an ambitious Nazi Germany. The war was conducted with the most up-to-date weapons technology and cost the lives of more than 55 million people. The Holocaust, the systematic annihilation of the European Jews, represented an unparalleled moral catastrophe for modern civilization.


 



Pablo Picasso "Weeping Woman", 1937

 

 

 


The Soviet Union
 


1917-1939
 

 

see also:
Socialist Realism

 

The Russian czar was deposed in 1917, even before the end of World War I. The radical left-wing Bolsheviks emerged victorious out of the dispute between the democratic transitional government and the revolutionary Soviet Council of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies. They came to power in the October Revolution in 1917 under the leadership of Lenin, ended the war, suppressed counterrevolutionary uprisings in a civil war, and constituted the first Communist-ruled state in the world: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). After Lenin's death in 1924, the Soviet Union became an increasingly centralized personal dictatorship under Stalin in the 1930s. Stalin oversaw a massive industrialization program and forcibly collectivized agriculture, while millions fell victim to the regime's repression.

 

 

 


Soviet Nonconformist Art


Komar and Melamid


Leonid Sokov

 


Soviet Nonconformist Art


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The term Soviet Nonconformist Art refers to art produced in the former Soviet Union from 1953-1986 (after the death of Stalin until the advent of Perestroika and Glasnost) outside of the rubric of Socialist Realism. Other terms used to refer to this phenomenon are "unofficial art" or "underground art."

Notable Soviet Nonconformist artists from Russia include Ilya Kabakov, Oleg Vassiliev, Komar and Melamid, Leonid Sokov, Boris Sveshnikov, Vladimir Yakovlev, Anatoly Zverev, Ylo Sooster, Vladimir Nemukhin, Ernst Neizvestny and Oscar Rabine, Alexander Yulikov, Andrey Grositsky, Igor Shelkovsky, from Moscow, and Timur Novikov and Afrika (Sergei Bugaev), from St. Petersburg.

The Petersburg group are formed in Leningrad into 1960.
The Group begins in 1964, from the exhibition in Hermitage Museum of five artists: V. Kravchenko, V. Uflyand, V. Ovchinnikov, Michail Chemiakin and O. Liagatchev.

The official name of the exhibit was "Exhibition of the artist-workers of the economic part of the Hermitage. Towards the 200 anniversary of Hermitage".

Exhibition was opened 30-31 March of 1964 and on 1 April it was arrested by authorities.
The Hermitage director, Mikhail Artamonov, was removed from his post.

In 1967 it was written "Manifest Peterburg Group", signed by Michail Chemiakin, O.Liagatchev, E. Yesaulenko and V. Ivanov. Somewhat previously by V. Ivanov and Michail Chemiakin are written theoretical essay " Métaphysique Synthétisme".

Group gave preference to still life, stylistic searches and illustration.
Michail Chemiakin in its painting realizes the ideas of the "Métaphysique Synthétisme". In the graph they created illustrations to the works E.T.A. Hoffman, to "Crime and Punishment" Fyodor M. Dostoevsky; it so works in the technology of the engraving painted by water color.
Since 1968 O. Liagatchev is fascinated by semiotic searches and manufactures his visual-ornamental style; characteristic for this style picturesque works as "Kafka" and "Intimeniy XX" in 1973, "Composition - Canon" in 1975.

Joined this group A. Vasiliev, as the master of picturesque invoices and technical improvisations and V. Makarenko as miniature-painter and metaphysical painter.

In 1971 Michail Chemiakin emigrated to France, and later the United States.
Liagatchev and Vasiliev participated in the exhibitions non-conformist artists at the Cultural Center Gaza in 1974 and at the Cultural Center Nevsky 1975.
In 1975 Liagatchev emigrated to France. Group did not have joint exhibitions and became defunct in 1979.
 

 

 



Komar and Melamid

 

 

Vitaly Komar and Alex Melamid were born in Moscow, Komar on September 11, 1943 and Melamid on July 14, 1945. Both artists attended the Moscow Art School from 1958 to 1960, and the Stroganov Institute of Art & Design, Moscow, from 1962 to 1967. Their collaborative work started in 1965, and in 1967, they initiated the SOTS Art movement (the Soviet version of Western Pop Art). Their first international exhibition was at Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York, in 1976.

Since then, they have had numerous public commissions and exhibitions throughout the world. In 1978, Komar & Melamid became United States residents. In 1981, they were the first Russian artists to receive a National Endowment for the Arts grant. Notorious dissidents before they left the Soviet Union, the artists have since been called "exasperating expatriates" for their travesties of Socialist Realism.


Vitaly Komar and Alex Melamid


 


Lenin at the Palladium
1992


 


Washington, Lenin, Duchamp, and Duncan 


 


Double Self Portrait as Young Soviet Pioneers

(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)


 


I Saw Stalin Once When I Was a Child
(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
1981-82


 


Lenin Lived, Lenin Lives, Lenin Will Live

(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)


 


The Origin of Socialist Realism
(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)


 


The Origin of Socialist Realism

(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)


 


The Origin of Socialist Realism
(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)



 


Portrait of "Medved"
 (from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
 Medved means bear in Russian


 


Visit to the Museum of the Revolution

(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
1981-82


 


What Is To Be Done? 1970s?
(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
1982-83


 


Stalin in Front of Mirror
(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
1982-83


 


The Tempest—Collective Farm Workers With Prize Bull
 (from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
1981-82


 


Still Life With Marx and Engels
(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)


 


Thirty Years Ago, 1953

(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
1983


 


Blindman's Buff
(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
1982-83


 


Stalin and the Muses
(from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)
1981-82
The muse of painting presents Clio, the muse of history, to Stalin


 


Bolsheviks Returning Home After a Demonstration
 (from Nostalgic Socialist Realism series)


 


Yalta Conference

1982


 


Lenin Hails a Cab
1992


 


American Dreams


 


Khrushchev's Plot Against Beria
1981-1982


 


Untitled


 


Untitled

 

 


Leonid Sokov

 

Leonid Sokov, Russian artist and sculptor, (Леонид Соков) was born in Mikhalevo in the Tver region, Russia in 1941.
Sokov
emigrated to the United States in 1980.


 


Marilyn and Stalin
1990


 


Marilyn and Stalin
1990


 


Stalin and Marilyn
1986


 


Monroe and Stalin
1991


 


Staline et Monroe
1991


 


Marilyn


 


The Meeting: Two Sculptures
1986

 

 

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