Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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Cabanel-Carrington Carrucci-Chia Chicago-Copley Coptic-Czech

Coptic art. The art of a Christianized community of Egypt, converted с 2nd с. AD; it fused late Egyptian, *Hellenistic and Byzantine styles. Funerary sculptures are stiffly posed; wall painting uses bold, flat colour areas, and depicts decorative animal and plant forms and primitive human figures with staring whites of the eyes and heavy eyebrows. Numerous C. textiles survive in similar style. Important buildings are the Red and White Monasteries at Sohag (r. 440) and the 11 th- and I2th-c. churches of Old Cairo. Early 3-aisled basilica-type buildings evolved to a characteristic C. type ot cellular structure of numerous chapels and cells.

Corbusier. *Le Corbusier

Corinth Lovis (1858-1925). German painter. C. studied at Konigsberg Academy (1876—80) and the Academic Julian, Pans (1884-5). He became one of the leaders of German Impressionism, joining the Munich *Sezession; but his late style — e.g. his paintings of the Walchensee — comes close to *Expressionism, developing from his interest in dramatic scenes and facial expression using *impasto, and very free brush work.

Corneille (Cornells van Beverloo) (1922- ). Belgian artist, a member of Reflex group and a founder of the international *Cobra group.
Corneille de Lyon (fl. 1534-74). Dutch portrait painter working at Lyons. The few-surviving works attributed to him are similar in style to the portraits of F. Clouet.

Cornelis van Hearlem (Cornelisz Cornells) (1562-1638). Dutch Mannerist painter of portraits and biblical and mythological subjects; a pupil of P. Aertsen.

Cornelius Peter von (1783-1867). German painter, for a time a member of the *Nazarene group before settling in Munich, where he did much work, notably large-scale frescoes.

Cornell Joseph (1903-72). U.S. *assemblage artist. His 3-dimensional 'collages' of everyday objects enclosed in heavy picture-frame boxes, glass and sometimes mirrors, suggest a remote private world, surreal in time and space. Works include Medici Slot Machine (1942) and the Uclipse Series (early 1960s).

Corot Camille (Jean-Baptiste) (1796-1875). French painter of landscape and portraits. Trained-in the classical tradition of French landscape, founded chiefly on Poussin, C. went to Italy in 1825, and returned there many times. There are 3 distinct styles in his painting. His early classical landscapes, painted in rich panels of colour, often in the full glare of an Italian noon, e.g. View of the (Colosseum, influenced Cezanne and other Post-Impressionists in their composition by tonal contrasts instead of strict drawing. In the 2nd style are the soft and silvery woodland scenes painted from the 1850s to his death, e.g. Ville d'Avray. Finally he painted a few portraits and studies of women, e.g. Woman with a Pearl. The last are of a very high quality and have recently won recognition.

Correggio born Antonio Allegn (c. 1494-1534). Italian painter called after his birthplace in Emilia. C. worked all his life in the district around Parma, yet he seems to have been aware to a remarkable degree of the innovations m painting m Rome, Florence and Venice. He was probably the pupil of F. Bianchi Ferrari, but an early visit to Mantua brought him under the influence of L. Costa and Mantegna. Soon, however, the revolutionary style of Leonardo had softened C.'s painting. He combined this softness, a sort of 'golden haze', which is characteristic of all his major work, with a strong sense of modelling and a delight in rendering flesh tones. Unlike most N. Italian painters of the time, he did not simply surrender himself to the style of Leonardo: instead of Leonardo's creation of an unearthly beauty, C.'s subjects, however idealized, are sensual and very much of this earth. There is no evidence that C. was ever in Rome, but he was certainly informed of Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel and those of Raphael in the Vatican Stanze. Qualities of all 3 of the leading painters of the High Renaissance are reflected in C.'s madonnas. Equally popular were his mythological subjects, e.g. Mercury Instructing Cupid Before Venus. Today, he is chiefly considered important for the boldness of his imagination. C. was one of the 1st major artists to experiment with the dramatic effects of artificial lighting, e.g. Agony in the Garden, in which the figure ot Christ alone lights the dark garden, and in Holy Night, m which the light comes from the Christ-child in the crib. C. is also seen as the vital link between the early experiments in illusionist painting of Mantegna at Mantua and the Baroque painters of ceilings. In Ganymede C. successfully depicts the figure of the shepherd carried into space by the bird of Jove. In his frescoes in the Camera di S. Paolo, Parma, or in the cupola of S. Giovanni Evangehsta, Parma, figures flying freely in space are seen from below, and in the Assumption a vision of a mass ascent into Heaven is rendered for the spectator in visually convincing terms.

Corrente. Italian journal that gave its name to an artistic movement in Milan from 1938 to 1943. Corrente grew out of Vita giovanile, a Fascist youth journal founded in Milan in January 1938 that originally sought to combat the cultural chauvinism of official art. The fortnightly publication soon developed an anti-Fascist stance; in October 1938 it was retitled Corrente di vita giovanile and the Fascist party symbols were removed from its masthead. From February 1939 it was entitled simply Corrente.

Correspondence art [Mail art]. Term applied to art sent through the post rather than displayed or sold through conventional commercial channels, encompassing a variety of media including postcards, books, images made on photocopying machines or with rubber stamps, postage stamps designed by artists, concrete poetry and other art forms generally considered marginal. Although Marcel Duchamp, Kurt Schwitters and the Italian Futurists have been cited as its precursors, as a definable international movement it can be traced to practices introduced in the early 1960s by artists associated with Fluxus, Nouveau Réalisme and the Gutai group and most specifically to the work of RAY JOHNSON. From the mid-1950s Johnson posted poetic mimeographed letters to a select list of people from the art world and figures from popular culture, which by 1962 he had developed into a network that became known as the New York Correspondence School of Art.

Cortona Pietro da. *Pietro da Cortona Cosimo Piero di. *Piero di Cosimo

Cossa Francesco del (c. 1435—с 1477). Ferrarese painter, possibly a pupil of C. Tura but influenced by Mantegna and Squarcione; some of his work, e.g. Autumn, follows Piero della Francesco. His masterly frescoes The Months (c. 1470) for the Palazzo di Schifanoia, Ferrara, depict, in a detailed style, fanciful scenes of court activities.

Costa Lorenzo (1459/60-1535). Italian painter of the school of *Ferrara. With F. Francia he worked for the Bentivoglio family in Bologna painting portraits and religious subjects. In 1507 he succeeded Mantegna as court painter at Mantua.

Costruzione legittima. An early form of *perspective used in the 1st half of the 15th c; it used only I vanishing point and produced a certain amount of distortion.

Cotman John Sell (1782-1842). British painter and engraver of the *Norwich school and 1st professor of drawing at King's College, London. His austere early watercolours, landscapes often painted in broad washes of a minimum number of colours: yellows, greens, browns and blues, are now highly prized. C. visited Normandy in 1817—18 and 1820. He made many engravings of buildings there and in Britain ill. books on antiquities.

Cottingham Robert
(American Photorealist Painter, born in 1935)

Cotton Will (b. 1965, Melrose, Massachusetts, U.S.) is an American painter. His primary subjects are candy and naked women, often in combination. Will Cotton lives and works in New York City. Will's paintings often feature baked goods such as a gingerbread house or a mobile home made of waffles. He has a professional oven in his studio and makes all of these himself. Then uses them as models for the paintings.

Courbet Gustave (Jean-Desire-) (1819-77). The leading French Realist painter of his time, C. was controversial both as an artist and as a public figure. Born at Ornans, Franche-Comte, he studied at Besancon and Pans, but was scornful of tuition and largely self-taught. He first took his subjects from life in the artists' studios in Pans and from the countryside around Ornans. In 1850 C.'s Burial at Ornans caused a sensation at the Salon. This enormous painting, containing over 30 life-size figures, was attacked on the alleged grounds that it presented the clergy as cynical and the peasants as brutalized. C. had intended it as a sincere, but not conventionally idealized, group portrait of the villagers with whom he had grown up. Seascapes, landscapes, flower paintings, studies of animals, nudes and a few large-scale genre paintings followed. All were savagely criticized. C. responded with an arrogant and angry wit which became celebrated. Many of the nudes are splendidly coloured — perhaps only Titian could have equalled the contrasts C. achieves between the tones of a fur or of a girl's hair against the tones of her flesh. The winter landscapes, e.g. Rocks al Ornans, have a rough and earthy texture which makes them at the same tune realistic and evocative.
In 1855 and 1867 C. withdrew from the Salon and held his own exhibition in the grounds, an action which was to set a precedent followed by the Impressionists. In 1871 he sided with the Commune, was made director of Museums and organized the destruction of the Napoleonic column in the Place Vendome. For these activities he was later imprisoned and heavily fined. He died in exile in Switzerland. By rejecting the ideals of both the Neoclassical and the Romantic schools and by choosing such subjects as the everyday life of the poor, C. prepared the way for artists as diverse as Millet and Degas. The independence of his behaviour and scorn of academic training had a lasting influence on the artists of Paris.

Courtauld Samuel (1867—1947). British collector and patron of Impressionist and Post-impressionist painting whose important collection was presented to the University of London (the Courtauld Institute Galleries). C. endowed the Courtauld Institute of Art in the University of London, the most important British art-historical institution.

Cousin Jean the Elder (c. 1490-1560/1). French painter and designer. Working in Sens he designed the stained-glass window of St Eutropius (1536) for the cathedral and painted (probably) there the 1st great French nude, Eva prima Pandora. He designed the tapestries of the life of St Mammes (begun 1543) for Langres cathedral.

Couture Thomas (1815—79). French portrait, historical and genre painter. His small commedia dell'arte paintings are popular, while the paintings on classical themes, such as the celebrated Romans of the Decadence (1847) and A Roman Feast have at times lost their appeal. *Manet was C.'s pupil for 6 years and undoubtedly learnt much from his strong, free brushwork and bold contrasts, shown especially in the sketches and a few fine landscapes.

Cowper Frank (1877-1958). The Pre-Raphaelite.

Coxcie (Coxie) Michiel van (1499—1592). Flemish painter and engraver of religious subjects in the Raphaelesque style adopted after he visited Italy with his master B. van Orley. For Philip II of Spain he copied the Van Eycks' altarpiece The Adoration of the Lamb.

Cozens Alexander (c 1717—86). One of the earliest British landscapists in watercolours; he was born in Russia and settled in Britain in 1746. He wrote several books; best known is A New Method of Assisting the Invention in Drawing Original Compositions oj Landscape (1785) describing his method of composing landscapes out of accidental ink blots (*blot drawing).

Cranach Lucas the Elder (1472-1553)-German painter, engraver and book ill. named after his birthplace. One of the most important of German artists, his training is obscure but his father was probably a painter. He travelled about the German states as an itinerant painter.
In 1505 he was at Wittenberg and by 1508 he had become court painter to the Electors of Saxony, a position he held tinder 3 successive Electors. He was ennobled, served as burgomaster and ran a large workshop which combined a studio, an apothecary shop and a printing and bookselling establishment. He became a personal friend of Luther and many of his woodcuts were designed to promote the Protestant cause. C.'s sons, Hans (d. 1537) and Lucas the Younger (1515—86), continued his workshop and his work is thus often hard to identify. Religious paintings, particularly madonnas depicted in landscapes, often with birds and animals in the foreground, survive to show the same love of detail as those of the *Danube school, e.g. Madonna and Child. His portraits, e.g. those of Luther, Duke Henry of Saxony and his Duchess are important documents of the time and some are among the 1st full-length portraits. C.'s rather awkward and self-conscious nudes are well known. One of the most natural and graceful of them is the Eve in Adam and Eve. Another painting which shows C.'s very individual, almost whimsical talent is the Judgement of Paris in which Paris, shown as an elderly warrior in full armour, presents the apple to one of a group of C-.'s nudes.

Crane Walter (1845-1915). British painter, textile and wallpaper designer and ill. of children's books, a descendant of the *Pre-Raphaelites. He was associated with *Burne-Jones and W. *Morns. Baby's Opera (1877), which is typical of his style of delicate line and pastel colours, was done for the publisher Edmund Evans who had commissioned him and *Greenaway for a series of children's books.

Craquelure. The fine cracks on an old painting produced by movement and shrinkage in the paint surface, the ground and the varnish. Different grounds and paint surfaces give characteristic patterns, slightly varied according to the age of the painting and the skill of the painter.

Crawford Ralston (b St Catharines, nr Niagara Falls, 5 Sept 1906; d New York, 27 April 1978). American painter, printmaker and photographer of Canadian birth. After attending high school in Buffalo, NY, Crawford worked on tramp steamers in the Caribbean. In 1927 he enrolled at the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles, CA, and worked briefly at the Walt Disney Studio. Later that year he moved to Philadelphia, PA, where he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and at the Barnes Foundation in Merion Station until 1930. Crawford’s paintings of the early 1930s, such as Still-life on Dough Table (1932), were influenced by the work of Cézanne and Juan Gris, which he had studied at the Barnes Foundation. He was also attracted to the simplified Cubism of Stuart Davis, with its restricted primary colour schemes. After a trip to Paris in 1932–3, where he studied at the Académie Colarossi and the Académie Scandinave, Crawford’s flat, geometric treatment of architectural and industrial subjects in paintings such as Vertical Building (1934; San Francisco, CA, MOMA) led him to be associated with Precisionism. After 1940 he almost eliminated modelling from his work in favour of flat and virtually abstract architectural renderings, for example Third Avenue Elevated (1949; Minneapolis, MN, Walker A. Cent.). He taught at several schools in the United States and worked extensively in lithography and photography, in many cases using his highly formal black-and-white photographs as source material for his paintings.

Credi Lorenzo di (f. 1459—1537). Italian painter of the Florentine school and a fellow pupil of Leonardo da Vinci under Verrocchio. His style, which changed little, was formed by both these masters; his work shows the best professional manner of Florentine painting at the period. The Noli me Tangere is a typical work.

Joseph Crepin (French, 1875-1948). Art brut

Crespi Giovan Battista called 'Il Cerano' (c. 1557—1633). Italian painter, sculptor and architect of the *Lombard school. He was head of the Milanese Academy from 1620; Guercino was his pupil.

Crespi Giuseppe Maria (1665—1747). Bolognese painter of religious subjects, portraits and genre who broke from the academic affectations of the Bolognese school. In deep tones and with heavy chiaroscuro he treated his subjects in naturalistic, even prosaic, terms, e.g. his pictures The Seven Sacraments. His son Luigi (1709—79) was a painter and the continuator of С С. Malvasia's lives of the Bolognese painters.

Criswell Warren. Born in 1936 in Florida and currently lives near Benton, Arkansas. Primarily a self-taught painter.
Warren Criswell is also a printmaker and sculptor who has exhibited nationally and internationally. He has had fourteen solo exhibitions in the United States and one in Taiwan. His work has been included in 47 group exhibitions in Germany, Taiwan, and across the United States, including one at the Baum Gallery of Fine Art.

Crivelli Carlo (c. 1430-95). Italian painter of the Venetian school. Although trained, probably by the Vivarini in Venice, С worked all his life outside the developing Venetian tradition, living in Ancona, Ascoli and other towns of the Marches where altarpieces painted by C, his relatives and pupils are still to be found. His style shows many diverse influences. In his use of swags of fruit and other classical motifs he follows the Paduan painters, but his decorative handling of gold and the stiffly posed figures belong to the conventions of the International Gothic style which was already out of fashion. С was a highly original artist who combined such different elements within a hard, flowing, highly decorative style of draughtsmanship, matched only perhaps by Botticelli. 2 small Madonna and Child panels combine this mastery of decoration with a simple and direct piety. On a grander scale the Demidoff Altarpiece and the Madonna and Child retain the same grace and feeling with a greater impression of power. The Annunciation (1486) is a rare and outstanding work m which all the unusual talents of this artist reach their culmination.

Croce Benedetto (1866-1952). Italian critic and philosopher of aesthetics and politician; he became minister of education m 1920 but retired from public office to oppose the Fascist regime. In the restored democratic system he was leader of the Liberal party until 1947. In 1903 he founded La Critica, a bi-monthly review of literature, history and philosophy, contributing to it until his death. C.'s aesthetic, propounded in L'Hslelica (1902; 1909; vol. of La Vilosofia dello spirito), regards art as an intuition revealed by the artist with the tools of ink, stone, paint, etc. The work of art is the image which exists in the artist's mind before its mechanical reproduction. С considered his aesthetic theory to cover expression of all kinds; his thinking greatly influenced the British philosopher *Gollingwood.

Crome John, called 'Old Crome' (1768-1821). British painter of landscape in oil and watercolour. C. was born in Norwich and was a founder of the Norwich Society of Artists. The influence of Dutch landscape painters (*Hobbema and *Ruisdael in particular) is obvious; so is his close study of Gainsborough and K. *Wilson when he was a copyist, but a powerful imagination informs his richly-coloured, formally composed yet romantically emotional compositions, e.g. Moonrise on the Yare, Mousehold Heath near Norwich. His son John Bernay C. (1794—1842) was also a landscape painter of the *Norwich school.

Cross Henri-Edmond (1856—1910). French painter, an exponent of *Divisioinsm which he used with greater freedom than *Signac or *Seurat. His brilliant colours influenced the Fauves.

Cruikshank George (1792-1878). British comic artist whose individual style showed traces of Gillray's influence. He first became widely known with his caricatures of the leading figures in the scandal of Queen Caroline's trial. His later satirical drawings attacked, among other things, the savage criminal code of his time, the slave trade, patronage and the evils of drink. His ills to Dickens (Sketches by Boz, Oliver Twist) are well known, but perhaps the works which best matched his own flair for the grotesque were the trs of fairy-tales by the Grimm brothers.

Cubism. The Ist abstract art style of the 20th c. named by the art critic Louis Vauxcelles, who took tip a remark of Matisse's about *13raquc's little cubes. The major period of the style is from 1907 to 1914, and the originators were *Picasso and Braque, who worked closely together. Various divisions of C. into periods have been suggested: the names 'analytic', 'hermetic' and 'synthetic' are m general use: but the term 'analytic' does not adequately describe the earliest Cubist works, which are influenced by Iberian and African art as in the Demoiselles d'Avignon by Picasso (1907), so that some critics have suggested 'pre-Cubist' or 'proto-Cubist' for this phase.
If such works are seen as the prelude to C, the 1st truly Cubist works are those m which objects, landscapes and people are represented as many-sided (or many-faceted) solids. Cezanne's later work was a catalyst for this painting, and was known to Cubists from the important showing of his work after his death in 1905; his advice to *Bernard to 'deal with nature by means of the cylinder, the sphere and the cone' was taken as a justification of Cubist experiments. Woman with a Guitar by Picasso is a clear example of this phase of C. Braque and Picasso then turned to a flatter type of abstraction, in which the allover pattern becomes more important, and the objects represented are largely or wholly indecipherable (hermetic C). At this period colour was almost wholly absent from their work, which is mainly monochromatic, grey, blue or brown and white. Colour reappeared in the final phase of C, called 'synthetic', from its combination of abstraction with real materials. Many other artists worked in the Cubist style, which replaced Fauvism as the leading artistic movement in Paris from about 1909. The most significant contributions were made by *Gris and *Leger, but there were many others including *Gleizes and *Metzinger (who publ. a book on C), *Derain, *Friesz, De la Fresnaye and *Marcoussis. Cubist sculptors included *Archipenko and *Laurens. C. was represented in the Salon d'Automne, and a group was formed called the Section d'Or: in this the Villon brothers, *Villon, *Duchamp-Villon and *Duchamp, are the major figures. This activity in Paris had far-reaching effects, stimulating the Futurist movement in Italy, the Vorticists in Britain, and having some effect on Fxpressionist art in Germany: it was also an important precedent for other movements with abstract aims such as those in Russia (*Constructivism, *Suprematism) and the Netherlands (*De Stijl). C. developed in Paris in 2 main ways, towards a decorative style, in which the subjects are treated geometrically but remain clearly recognizable, or towards a greater degree of abstraction as in *Delaunay's rhythmic paintings of coloured segments and circles (*Orphism).
C. has continued to have an important influence on 20th-c. art. An attempt was made by *Ozenfant and the architect *Le Corbusier to return to a simpler purified C, but by 1920 C. was already too much a part of the general artistic vocabulary to be restricted to this Purism. Cubist ideas and techniques continue to be used up to the present, particularly *collage invented in the synthetic period.


Term derived from a reference made to ‘geometric schemas and cubes’ by the critic Louis Vauxcelles in describing paintings exhibited in Paris by Georges Braque in November 1908; it is more generally applied not only to work of this period by Braque and Pablo Picasso but also to a range of art produced in France during the later 1900s, the 1910s and the early 1920s and to variants developed in other countries. Although the term is not specifically applied to a style of architecture except in former Czechoslovakia, architects did share painters’ formal concerns regarding the conventions of representation and the dissolution of three-dimensional form. Cubism cannot definitively be called either a style, the art of a specific group or even a movement. It embraces widely disparate work; it applies to artists in different milieux; and it produced no agreed manifesto. Yet, despite the difficulties of definition, it has been called the first and the most influential of all movements in 20th-century art.


Term used to describe a style of Czech avant-garde art, literature, film, dance and cabaret of the period 1909–21. It was introduced by art historians and critics, notably Jirí Padrta and Morislav Lamac, in the early 1970s. The term has two meanings: a general one applicable to the tendency of the age and a specialized one referring to the synthesis of two styles that influenced the development of modern Czech art: French Cubism and German Expressionism.

Cubist-Realism (also known as 'Precision-ism'). Style of U.S. painting of the 1920s and 1930s winch effected a compromise between Cubism and straight representational painting. Its chief exponents were *Demuth and *Sheeler. While their subject matter — urban or industrial architecture - remained recognizable it was schematized into a formal geonictnzcd design executed with hard-edged precision. *Magic Realism.

Cubo-futurism. *Futurism


Term first used in 1913 in a lecture, later published, by the Russian art critic Korney Chukovsky (1882–1969) in reference to a group of Russian avant-garde poets whose work was seen to relate to French Cubism and Italian Futurism; it was subsequently adopted by painters and is now used by art historians to refer to Russian art works of the period 1912–15 that combine aspects of both styles. Initially the term was applied to the work of the poets Vladimir Mayakovsky, Aleksey Kruchonykh, Velimir Khlebnikov, Benedikt Livshits (1886–1939) and Vasily Kamensky (1864–1961), who were grouped around the painter David Burlyuk. Their raucous poetry recitals, public clowning, painted faces and ridiculous clothes emulated the activities of the Italians and earned them the name of Russian Futurists. In poetic output, however, only Mayakovsky could be compared with the Italians; his poem ‘Along the Echoes of the City’, for example, which describes various street noises, is reminiscent of Luigi Russolo’s manifesto L’arte dei rumori (Milan, 1913).

Cumberland Market Group. British group of painters. They took their subject-matter from everyday life, particularly that of north-west London, where Robert Bevan had his studio and held ‘At Homes’ for artist-friends. These formalized in late 1914 when Bevan, Charles Ginner and Harold Gilman established the group, joined in 1915 by John Nash. Christopher Nevinson and E. McKnight Kauffer attended meetings and compared works, although they did not exhibit with the group. Members consciously embraced the style called ‘Neo-Realism’, exploring the spirit of their age through the shapes and colours of daily life. Their intentions were proclaimed in Ginner’s manifesto in New Age (1 Jan 1914), which was also used as the preface to Gilman and Ginner’s two-man exhibition that year: it attacked the academic and warned against the ‘decorative’ aspect of imitators of Post-Impressionism.

Currier and Ives prints. Series of hand-coloured lithographs publ. in N.Y. depicting all aspects of the U.S. scene in the 2nd half of the 19th с Nathaniel C. (1813—88) began the series in 1835 and took J(ames) Merritt I. (1824—95) into partnership in 1857.

Currin John (born 1962) is an American painter. He is best known for satirical figurative paintings which deal with provocative sexual and social themes in a technically skillful manner. His work shows a wide range of influences, including sources as diverse as the Renaissance, popular culture magazines, and contemporary fashion models. He often distorts or exaggerates the erotic forms of the female body. 
Currin was born in Boulder, Colorado, and grew up in Connecticut, where he studied painting privately with a renowned traditionally trained artist from Odessa, Ukraine, Lev Meshberg. He went to Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he obtained a BFA in 1984, and received a MFA from Yale University in 1986.
In New York City in 1989 he exhibited a series of portraits of young girls derived from the photographs in a high school yearbook, and initiated his efforts to distill art from traditionally clichéd subjects. In the 1990s, when political themed art works were favored, Currin brazenly used bold depictions of busty young women, mustachioed men and asexual divorcés, setting him apart from the rest. He used magazines like Cosmopolitan along with old issues of Playboy for inspiration for his paintings. When criticized for being sexist, Currin did not deny it, but did remark that he felt that "at that time [he] didn't feel like a man and [he] didn't feel like a woman." In 1992 a subsequent exhibition focused, less sympathetically, on well-to-do middle-aged women. Nonetheless, by the late 1990s Currin's ability to paint subjects of kitsch with technical facility met with critical and financial success, and by 2003 his paintings were selling "for prices in the high six figures". More recently, he has undertaken a series of figure paintings dealing with unabashedly pornographic themes. He has had retrospective exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago and is represented in the permanent collections of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and the Tate Gallery.
Currin is based in New York City, where he lives with his wife and fellow artist, Rachel Feinstein.

Cuyp Aelbert (1620—91). Dutch painter influenced by earlier Dutch landscape painters, in particular Van Goyen. There is a strong element in his work of Italianate Dutch painters, such as Jan Both, especially in his handling of light. He painted portraits, stilllifes, seascapes, landscapes and town scenes, but is best known for studies of animals in the mellow light of a summer evening. C.'s work was greatly admired by British collectors and by British landscape painters of the early 19th c.

Cycladic. Term applied to vases and (notably) the marble idols found m the Cyclades, a group of islands in the Aegean, and evidence for what appears to have been a flourishing culture between 2600 and 1100 ВС.

Czech Cubism. Term used to describe a style in architecture and the applied arts, directly inspired by Cubist painting and sculpture, which was developed by architects and designers active in Prague shortly before World War I; the term itself was not used until the 1960s. The leaders of the style were the members of the Group of Plastic Artists (1911–14), which broke away from the Mánes Union of Artists in 1911 and for two years published its own journal, Umelecky mesícník (‘Art monthly’). The architects in the group were Josef Gocár, Josef Chochol, Vlastislav Hofman (1884–1964) and Pavel Janák; other members included Emil Filla, Václav Spála, Antonín Procházka and Otto Gutfreund. The group was reacting against the austere rationalism of such architects as Jan Kotera, seeking instead to sustain architecture and the applied arts as branches of art rich in content. Their approach was expounded in various articles, particularly by Janák, who developed the principles of architectural Cubism; based on the thesis of Cubism in painting and sculpture, that art should create a distinctive, parallel picture of reality, it attempted to dematerialize a building’s mass by the three-dimensional surface sculpturing of the façade with abstract, prismatic forms.


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