Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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  Gabo-Giorgione Giotteschi-Gozzoli Grabar-Guttuso  

Giotteschi. Name given to the followers of Giotto. They included Bernardo Uaddi, Giottmo, Maso di Banco and Taddeo Gaddi but many works in Giotto's style are anon.

Giotto di Bondone (c. 1266—1337). Italian painter and architect. The significance of G.'s original vision of the natural world and his genius in communicating it were proclaimed by Boccaccio, Dante and Petrarch in the 14th с and G. has been celebrated ever since as the true founder of Florentine painting and an initiator of Western art. The outline of his life can only be put forward tentatively. By tradition he was the pupil of Cimabue, working with his master both m Florence and Rome. Then or later he was undoubtedly in contact with the work of the Roman painter P. Cavallini and the sculptor Arnolfo di Gambio, which paralleled the break Cimabue had made with the conventions of Byzantine art in Italy. G.'s earliest work may have been connected with the mosaics of the Baptistery, Florence. He was almost certainly painting at Assisi by about 1290. In т 300 he was probably employed in Rome and soon after in Florence. The famous frescoes of the Arena, or Scrovegni chapel, Padua, occupied him during the 1st decade of the 14th с Either in 1300, or, more likely, in about 1313, G. designed the Navicella, 'Ship of the Church', mosaic in St Peter's, Rome. During the 2nd decade of the 14th с he painted the Cappella di S. Maddalena at Assisi, the frescoes of S. Antonio and the Palazzo della Ragione, Padua, and works in Rimini. In the 3rd decade much of his time was spent in Florence, where among other undertakings he painted the frescoes of S. Croce. Subsequently he painted in both Naples and Milan, but in 1334 he was present to be nominated architect of Florence cathedral and the city fortifications. Later that year he began the Campanile, which still bears his name, but which was considerably altered from his plan.
G. consolidated the break others had made with Byzantine art, but his real achievements were those of a narrator of genius and a master draughtsman. The last enabled him to create the illusion of texture, weight, expression and, above all, depth in his paintings. Thus his scenes are visually convincing. What is more, he was able to give expression to complex human emotions in a way that is both subtle and tellingly simple. G.'s influence, paramount for a generation after he died, later surrendered to others, only to be revived by artists, chiefly Florentine, who were interested in draughtsmanship as a means of expressing reality. Michelangelo admired and made copies of his work.
Of G.'s works, the frescoes attributed to him in the upper and lower churches, Assisi, have been frequently challenged. The St Frauds cycle in the upper church is almost certainly his, though the later frescoes were probably painted to his design by assistants. Crucifixion, Lamentation and Joaehim's Dream are among the most outstanding scenes depicted in the Scrovegni chapel, Padua. Among his panel pictures the most important is unquestionably the Ognissauti Madonna; while other works generally attributed to him are Crucifix and Dormition of the Virgin.

Giovanni da Bologna. *Bologna Giovanni da

Giovanni da Milano (fl. mid- 14th c). Italian painter, follower of Taddeo Gaddi. He worked m Florence and Rome. There are frescoes by him in the Rinuccini chapel, S. Croce, Florence.

Giuliano da Sangallo. Italian architect and sculptor (b. 1445, Firenze, d. 1516, Firenze)

Giovanni di Balduccio. Italian sculptor, active 1318–49.

Giovannino de' Grassi ( fl from 1380s; d 5 July 1398). Italian miniaturist, Lombard school (active 1389-1398 in Lombardy)
Draughtsman, painter and architect. In contrast to his documented career, Giovannino’s 20th-century reputation is as one of the most innovative and inventive of manuscript illuminators, despite the fact that his only documented illumination is ‘tabulla una a grammatichi’ (a grammar table/tablet; 1395), made for the seven-year-old son of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, 1st Duke of Milan. His reputation rests instead on the inscription ‘Johininus de grassis designavit’ on a folio of wash drawings of animals in a sketchbook (Bergamo, Bib. Civ. A. Mai, MS. delta vii. 14, fol. 4v). Some of the late 14th-century drawings in this sketchbook are closely related to those of the Psalter–Hours begun for Gian Galeazzo (Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MS. Banco Rari 397 and MS. Landau Finaly 22) and completed some decades later for his son Filippo Maria. A change in the type of subsidiary decoration and variations in style show that the illumination for Giangaleazzo was undertaken in two campaigns. The two styles, however, are closely related, and a precise division between them is difficult to make. The earliest work on the manuscript, the first volume and the opening folios of the second volume, is generally attributed to Giovannino and was probably painted in the late 1380s, before he joined the payroll of the Milan Cathedral works. The light, bright colours, richly gilded with liquid and burnished gold, give the pages a scintillating appearance. Each border is of an individual design; in addition to conventional foliage, some include birds or animals and many have a resourceful incorporation of the emblems, arms, mottoes and even portraits of the owner.

Girodet-Trioson Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson (1767-1 824). French painter, ill. and poet; pupil of David. His painting The Burial of Atala (1808), based on a novel by Chateaubriand, is a notable early expression of French Romanticism in theme and presentation although it retains the balanced composition and smooth technique of the classical school.

Gironella Alberto
(1929-1999). Surrealist Art.

Girotto Walter. Velvet painting

Girtin Thomas (1775-1802). British painter. Together with *Turner, G. revolutionized watercolour technique, chiefly by abandoning the use of underpainting for a much freer style in which colours were applied directly on to semi-absorbent paper. G. travelled all over Britain painting and on a visit to Paris painted street scenes, etc. which show the variety and richness of the effects that could be achieved in the new technique. G. did much to raise British landscape painting m watercolour from topographical drawing to a fine art. Among his best paintings are Kirkstall Abbey and The White House.

Giulio Romano (Giulio Pippi) (1492 or 1499-1546). Italian Mannerist painter and architect, a pupil of Raphael, whom he assisted in the Vatican Stanze and Loggie. He continued Raphael's later style, but with harsher colours, greater distortions and more violent composition; he also did a famous series of pornographic engravings. In 1524 he went to Mantua in the service of the duke and turned mainly to architecture. There he built the Palazzo del Те (1526—34), his masterpiece and the prime example of Mannerist architecture: orthodox classical motifs are wilfully misused, rhythms irregular, keystones dropped, columns left rough as if from the quarry, etc. The impression of instability is epitomized in the Sala dei Giganti (also painted by G.R.), where the architecture of the room appears to be on the point of collapsing; the illusionistic frescoes The Fall of the Titans covering the whole room from floor to ceiling, showed a melodramatic exaggeration of Raphael's style.

see also:
Romano Giulio (2)

Giusto de' Menabuoi ( fl 1349–c. 1390). Italian painter. He was a native of Florence, but all records of his activity and all surviving works are in or from northern Italy. Together with the Veronese painter Altichiero, and following in the wake of the native Guariento, Giusto helped establish Padua as a major centre for the development of late 14th-century painting. His work illustrates the widening stylistic gulf in the years following the Black Death between the activities of Florentine painters working in Florence and those of artists either born there or exposed to the influence of Florentine art before the mid-century, but working further north, where, after c. 1350, the most significant developments of the Giottesque legacy took place. Beyond a shared Florentine tendency to monumental form, his art increasingly diverged from the style of Orcagna and his school, and Giusto’s expansion of the pictorial possibilities suggested by Giotto, Maso di Banco and Taddeo Gaddi in the early decades of the century is bolder than anything attempted by the painters of late 14th-century Florence. His career may be divided into two phases: work in Lombardy, 1350s and 1360s; and from c. 1370 in Padua, where he enjoyed the patronage of the Carrara court.

Glackens William James (1870—1938). U.S. painter (in an Impressionist style influenced by Renoir) and also ill.; member of The *Eight.

Glasgow school. A term confusmgly applied to two quite different groups of late 19th- and early 20th-c. Scottish painters: 1. The group led by William Yorke Macgregor, and also including John Lavery and David Cameron, which was influenced by the more decorative aspects of French *Impressionism; 2. The group led by the architect C. R. Mackintosh which produced a distinctive Scottish version of *Art Nouveau.

Glass print. *cliche-verre

Gleeson James (born 21 November 1915) is Australia's foremost surrealist artist. He is also a poet, critic, writer and curator. He has played a significant role in the Australian art scene, including serving on the board of the National Gallery of Australia.Gleeson was born in Sydney where he attended East Sydney Technical College. It was here he was drawn to work of the likes of Salvador Dalí, Giorgio de Chirico and Max Ernst. In 1938 he studied at Sydney Teacher's College where he gained two years training in general primary school teaching. He also joined the Sydney Branch of the assertively experimental Contemporary Art Society. At this time Gleeson became interested in the writings of psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. These would become major intellectual influences for his art.Gleeson's themes generally delved into the subconscious using literary, mythological or religious subject matter. He was particularly interested in Jung’s archetypes of the collective unconscious.During the 50s and 60s he moved to a more symbolic perspective, exploring notions of human perfectibility. At this time he increasingly fashioned small psychedelic compositions made using the surrealist technique of decalcomania in the background, to suggest a landscape, and finished by adding a fastidiously painted male nude in the foreground. The ideas for these compositions also saw Gleeson move into collage with his Locus Solus series, where he produced a substantial body of work by placing dismembered photographs, magazine illustrations, diagrams and lines of visionary poetry against abstract pools of ink.Since the 1970s Gleeson has generally made large scale paintings in keeping with the surrealist Inscape genre. The works outwardly resemble rocky seascapes, although in detail the coastline's geological features are found to be made of giant molluscs and threatening crustacae. In keeping with the Freudian principles of surrealism these grotesque, nightmarish compositions symbolise the inner workings of the human mind. Called 'Psychoscapes' by the artist, they show liquid, solid and air coming together and directly allude to the interface between the conscious, subconscious and unconscious mind.Gleeson's later works incorporate the human form less and less in it's entirety. The human form was then represented in his landscapes by suggestions, an arm, a hand or merely an eye.

Gleizes Albert (1881-1953). French painter; deeply impressed by a painting by Le Fauconnier, he abandoned his early Impressionist manner in 1910 and came in contact with other *Cubist painters. He was influenced by Leger and later by Gris, but paintings such as Harvester:; (1912) reveal a limited conservative understanding of Cubism. He exhibited with the main Cubist group in 1911 and 1912 and his attempt to revive the group after the war suggests a need to belong to a corporate movement. Du cubisme (1912) by G. and Metzinger was an attempt to clarify its history and principles.

Gleyre Charles (Marc) Gabriel (1808-74). Swiss history and genre painter who settled in Paris, took over the studio of Delaroche and is remembered for having taught there Bazille, Monet, Renoir, Sisley and Whistler among others. Though academic himself he acknowledged the talents of these younger artists.

Glyptic. Term meaning 'carved', used in sculpture to describe the method of working in which the form is carved directly from wood, stone, etc. instead of being built up in wax or clay prior to casting.

Gobelins. A firm of Pans tapestry weavers, transformed by Louis XIV and Colbert in 1662 into the Manufacture Royale des Meubles de la Couronne with the twofold aim of supplying the royal palaces with furnishings and building up a state manufacture of luxury articles to prevent the need for foreign imports. The presiding genius was Charles Le Brun the painter, who provided designs for all kinds of furnishings and controlled the factory in the greatest detail to ensure the highest standards of workmanship. Not only tapestries were produced, but also furniture, sculpture, works m gold and silver, carriages and architectural details, even door-locks.
Godollo colony. Hungarian artists’ colony. It was formed in 1901 at Gödöllo, near Budapest, when the painter Aladár Körösfoi-Kriesch undertook to revive the traditional art of weaving with looms donated by the Ministry of Culture. Members included Sándor Nagy and his wife, the painter and designer Laura Kriesch (1879–1966), Ervin Raálo (1874–1959), Jeno Remsey (1885–1980), Endre Frecskai (1875–1919), Léo Belmonte (1870–1956), Árpád Juhász (1863–1914), Rezso Mihály (1889–1972), István Zichy (1879–1951), Mariska Undi (1887–1959), Carla Undi (1881–1956) and the sculptor Ferenc Sidló (1882–1953). Inspired by the ideals of John Ruskin and William Morris and by the heroic vision of peasant life celebrated by Tolstoy, the group established workshops in ceramics, sculpture, leatherwork, furniture-making, embroidery, book-binding and illustration, fabric and wallpaper design and, most importantly, in stained glass and the weaving of carpets and tapestries coloured with vegetable dyes. Their goals were social as well as artistic: to enable the rural poor to stay on the land, they taught traditional craft techniques to local young people and exhibited their work to international acclaim. They also sought to develop a modern national style by adapting the rich forms and colourful ornament of vernacular art and architecture, which they recorded and published between 1907 and 1922 in the five-volume study, A magyar nép müvészete (The art of the Hungarian people). In 1909 they had a collective exhibition at the National Salon in Budapest. As artists identified with a style of romantic nationalism, Gödöllo designers and craftsmen obtained such important government commissions as the decoration of the Hungarian pavilions at international exhibitions and, in 1913, the design and decoration of the Palace of Culture of Marosvásárhely (now Tîrgu Mures, Romania), where the stained-glass windows by Sándor Nagy and Ede Thoroczkai Wigand rank as one of the greatest achievements of 20th-century Hungarian art. The colony existed until 1921. The textile workshop carried on for a few more years under the management of Sándor Nagy and the weaver Vilma Frey (1886–after 1921).

Godward John William (August 9, 1861 – December 13, 1922) was an English painter from the end of the Pre-Raphaelite / Neo-Classicist era. He was a protégé of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema but his style of painting fell out of favour with the arrival of painters like Picasso. He committed suicide at the age of 61 and is said to have written in his suicide note that "the world was not big enough" for him and a Picasso.His already estranged family, who had disapproved of him becoming an artist, were ashamed of his suicide and burned his papers. No photographs of Godward are known to survive. Godward was born in 1861 and lived in Wilton Grove, Wimbledon. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1887. When he moved to Italy with one of his models in 1912, his family broke off all contact with him and even cut his image from family pictures. Godward returned to England in 1919, died in 1922 and is buried in Brompton Cemetery, west London. One of his best known paintings is Dolce far Niente (1904), which currently resides in the collection of Andrew Lloyd Webber. As in the case of several other paintings, Godward painted more than one version, in this case an earlier (and less well known) 1897 version.

Goes Hugo van der (c 1440-82). Early Netherlands painter and, after Van Eyck, the most gifted artist of the school; probably born m Ghent. He entered the artists' guild there in 1467 and was dean in 1474. Shortly afterwards he became a lay brother at the monastery of Roode Clooster near Brussels and from this time he was subject to increasing attacks of depression and mental instability. He continued to paint until about 1471. His greatest work is unquestionably the large triptych commissioned by the Florentine merchant Portinan in 1475. Taken to Florence, this masterpiece had a considerable influence on Florentine painting, e.g. in the later work of Ghirlandaio. Among other important works are Adoration of the Shepherds, Adoration of the Kings, Fall of Adam, Lamentation, Virgin and St Anne, the 2 large organ shutters at Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, (Crucifixion and the almost mystically intense Death of the Virgin. G.'s only true follower was the *Master of Moulins.

Goethe Johann Wolfgang von (1749—1832). German poet, writer and polymath, the major influence on German Romanticism and European Romantic poetry and art. G. is best known for his epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werthcr (1774; 2nd version 1787) and the verse drama Faust (1808; 1823; 1832; 1838). At 1st G. identified art with nature and maintained the Romantic notion of individuality and genius. He later turned to the classicism of the Renaissance and developed the idea of 'beauty' as the symbolic expression of the inner laws of nature, as exemplified in the art of antiquity, and apprehended intuitively. He wrote extensively on art, e.g. Uber Kunst und Altertum (1816—32), including a treatise on colour theory, Zjir Farhenlehre.

Goff Bruce Alonzo (1904 - 1982). Surrealist Art.

Gogh Vincent Van (1853-90). An artist whose work is one of the formative influences of 20th-c. art and whose life has become almost a legend. The son of a Dutch parson, he was employed by a firm of art dealers in The Hague, London and Fans. Afterwards he became in turn a schoolmaster in Britain, a missionary to the miners in the Borinage, Belgium, and finally, in 1880, an artist. Van G. was virtually self-taught, though he received some technical advice in oil and watercolour painting from a cousin, the artist A. Mauve. In 1886 he left Holland for Pans, where he lived with his brother Theo, one of the few art dealers encouraging such artists as Bernard, Degas, Gauguin, Seurat and Toulouse-Lautrec. Impressed by the work and personalities of these painters, Van G. conceived the idea of founding a 'Studio of the South' at Aries as a working community for progressive artists. Fie himself went to Aries early in 1888, but the only other painter he persuaded to join him was Gauguin, who visited him at the end of 1888. A violent quarrel between the 2 precipitated the first of Van G.'s periodic attacks of madness in which he cut off part of his ear. 2 years later, at Auvers-sur-Oise, he shot himself. He bad sold 1 picture during his lifetime.
Early work of Van G.'s Dutch period is heavy, rich but subdued in colour, with a few fine effects. The Potato Eaters is typical. After his contact with other painters in Paris, with Japanese prints and the work of such original colourists as Delacroix and A. Monticelli, Van G.'s style changed radically to the brilliant colour and frenzied, thick brushwork of his Aries period. Among hundreds of paintings of the last two and a half years are: Cornfield and Cypress Frees, Starry Night, La Mousme, Sunflowers and Self-portrait. His watercolours (e.g. Fishing Boats at Santeo Maries) and drawings are of equal intensity and value, while the letters he wrote to his brother Theo are important literary and human documents in their own right.

Golden Fleece, The. A monthly magazine, printed in Moscow, running from 1906 to 1909, ed. and publ. by the wealthy painter Nikolai Ryabushinsky. Chiefly an art magazine, profusely illustrated, it also publ. poetry and literature of the late Symbolist school. It sponsored 2 historic Franco-Russian art exhibitions in Moscow in T908 and T909 which introduced the French Fauves and 1st brought together the Moscow and Paris avant-garde painters.

Golden Fleece [Rus. Zolotoye Runo].
Russian artistic and literary magazine published monthly in Moscow during 1906–9. It was financed and edited by the millionaire Nikolay Ryabushinsky, and it sponsored the first exhibitions in Russia of modern and of contemporary French art. In its first two years, this beautifully produced, well-illustrated and lively magazine was principally dedicated to Russian Symbolism. The poets Aleksandr Blok, Konstantin Bal’mont (1867–1943) and Andrey Bely were regular contributors and co-editors, as were many painters of the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) generation such as Alexandre Benois, Mikhail Vrubel’, Igor’ Grabar’, Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, Konstantin Korovin, Nicholas Roerich, Konstantin Somov and Valentin Serov. The Blue Rose group were also represented.

Golden Section, golden mean. The name given in art to the mathematical relationship between 3 points in a straight line (see diagram) in which the ratio AC: ВС equals the ratio ВС: AB.
This relationship was invested with an almost mystical significance by some Renaissance theorists and used extensively by certain painters, above all Piero della Francesca.

Golkonda. *Deccani miniature painting.

Goltzius Hendrik (1558-1617). Dutch engraver and, from 1600, painter influenced by Italian Mannerism. He worked in Haarlem and was the 1st engraver to exploit all the tonal possibilities of line engraving. Although his work lost some of the characteristics of the medium it achieved something of the subtle gradations of oil painting and exercised great influence on the growth of reproduction engraving.

Gomringer  Eugen(b. 1925). Visual Poetry

Goncalves Nuno (c 1438-81). Portuguese painter rediscovered in the 20th с and regarded as the founder of the Portuguese school. He is known to have been active as court painter to Alfonso V. c. 1450—72; the only work attributed to him with certainty is the polyptych for the convent of St Vincent, Lisbon (c. 1465-7), 6 panels which depict the whole of Portuguese society crowded about King Alfonso and Henry the Navigator as they pray to St Vincent. G. was a master of colour and of composition. The modelling of his figures is sculpturesque and their heads are painted with a sharp insight which anticipates the psychological portrait.

Goncharova Natalia (1881 — 1962). Russian painter and theatrical designer who studied under the sculptor Trubetskoy in Moscow where she met *Larionov, the major influence in her work as well as a life-long companion. A preoccupation with icon painting and national folk-art characterizes her best-known work such as designs for Diaghilev's Le Coq d'Or, Les Noces and Firebird. Before leaving Moscow for Paris in 1915, she was well known in Russia as a Futurist and Rayonnist painter.

Goncourt the brothers Edmond de (1822—96) and Jules de (1830—70). French writers who worked in collaboration until the younger died of syphilis. Edmond cherished the memory of Jules, continued the diary they had begun in collaboration and left money for the founding of the Academic G. and the Prix G., by which they were to be jointly commemorated. Well-to-do, self-absorbed bourgeois, they looked upon themselves as exceptional, sensitive creatures with a literary and artistic mission. They helped to create a fashion in 18tb-c. French furniture and paintings and in Japanese art. Their
extremely detailed books on the social and artistic life of the 18th c. are still read. They applied the same technique of close documentation and mannered writing, which they called 'l'ecriturec artiste' , to the lurid contemporary social subjects they dealt with in their novels, and so were pioneers of Realism and Naturalism: Germinie Lacerteux (1864; Germinie Lacerteux, 1887) and Madame Gervaisais (1869). Now their chief claim to fame is the Journal des Goncourt (complete text, 22 vols 1956—8; The Journal of the de Goncourt (extracts) 1915). Its accounts of the conversation of Daudet, Flaubert, Gautier, Saint-Beuve, Turgenev, Zola, etc. are absorbing though often malicious.

Gonsalves Rob is a Canadian painter of magic realism. He was born in Toronto,Ontario in 1959. He won the 2005 Governor General's Award in the Children's Literature - Illustration category for Imagine a Day. He is also an accomplished guitarist.During his childhood, Gonsalves developed an interest in drawing from imagination using various media. By age twelve, his awareness of architecture grew as he leaned perspective techniques and began to do his first paintings and renderings of imagined buildings.After an introduction to artists Dalí and Tanguy, Gonsalves began his first surrealist paintings. The "Magic Realism" approach of Magritte along with the precise perspective illusions of Escher came to be influences in his future work.In his post college years, Gonsalves worked full time as an architect, also painting trompe-l'œil murals and theatre sets. After an enthusiastic response in 1990 at the Toronto Outdoor Art Exhibition, Gonsalves devoted himself to painting full time.Although Gonsalves' work is often categorized as surrealistic, it differs due to the fact that the images are deliberately planned and result from conscious thought. Ideas are largely generated by the external world and involve recognizable human activities, using carefully planned illusionist devices. Gonsalves injects a sense of magic into realistic scenes. As a result, the term "Magic Realism" describes his work accurately. His work is an attempt to represent human beings desire to believe the impossible.Numerous individuals around the world, corporations, embassies, and a United States Senator collect Gonsalves' original work, and limited edition prints. Rob Gonsalves has exhibited at Art Expo New York and Los Angeles, Decor Atlanta and Las Vegas, Fine Art Forum, as well as one-man shows at Discovery Galleries, Ltd., Hudson River Art Gallery, and Kaleidoscope Gallery.

Gonzaga Pietro (b Longarone, nr Venice, 25 March 1751; d St Petersburg, 6 Aug 1831). Italian painter, stage designer and landscape designer, also active in Russia. He studied in Venice (1769–72) under Giuseppe Moretti and Antonio Visentini (1688–1782) and finished his education in Milan (1772–8), studying with the stage designers Bernardino, Fabrizio and Giovanni Antonio Galliari. He was considerably influenced by the works of Canaletto and Piranesi. He made his début as a stage designer in Milan at the Teatro alla Scala in 1779 and designed over 60 productions in Milan, Rome, Genoa and other Italian cities. From 1792 he worked in Russia, where he went on the recommendation of Prince Nikolay Yusupov, who was at that time the chief director of music and pageantry at the court of Catherine II.

Gonzalez A. Andrew
(October 13, 1963) is an award-winning figurative artist whose work has been exhibited worldwide. His artist father, Anthony A. Gonzalez, encouraged his early interest in drawing and painting, but gave him no formal training. In the year 2000, Gonzalez had the distinct privilege to work closely with the legendary Fantastic Realist artist Ernst Fuchs in Monaco and Austria.

Goodman Sidney (American Contemporary Realist Painter, born in 1936)

Gorky Arshile (1904—48). Armenian-born U.S. painter who settled in the U.S.A. in 1920. He met S. *Davis in N.Y., c. 1929, and *De Kooning in 1933. His early pictures derived from Cezanne and Picasso. A series of family portraits were true to life but also showed the germ of G.'s highly individual style: images flat on the surface of the canvas, pre-figuring later De Kooning and G.'s own later flat, *biomorphic works, which were released from use of Surrealist automatism. G. had the greatest influence on subsequent developments in U.S. art and he anticipated and pioneered *Abstract Expressionism.

Gossaert Jan. *

Gothic. General term applied to the style in the arts of the high Middle Ages; it was coined contemptuously in the 17th c, the Goths being among the barbarian ancestors of medieval Europe. In architecture it is applied to the style developed in the He de France in the 12th с (Suger) characterized by the pointed arch, soaring piers, elaborate vaults, extensive use of glass and increasingly intricate tracery. Rib-vaults and pointed arches are found in Romanesque, but their fusion, with the added element of the flying buttress, produced G., a new style in architecture. The emphasis was on dynamic line rather than on weight and mass, as in Komanesque, and the more elegant working out of engineering problems combined with the new spirit of religious mysticism and aspiration produced an ever stronger emphasis on vertical and height, evidenced in spires and Heches. Extensive use was made ot sculpture and stained glass as decorative features. The style spread to Britain, where it developed the 3 periods of Early English, decorated and perpendicular, and somewhat later to Germany. Spanish G. was deeply influenced by French, though a distinct national style evolved in the 15th and 16th cs. Italy remained outside the mainstream (e.g. Siena cathedral; Frari, Venice). In Britain the gradual 18th-c. renewal of interest in all things 'Gothick' led eventually to the Gothic revival of the 19th с and the Neo-Gothic style in architecture, international G. is a term used in painting.

Gotch Thomas Cooper (b Kettering, 10 Dec 1854; d Newlyn, 1 May 1931). English painter. He studied at Heatherleys in London (1876–7), at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp (1877–8) and with Alphonse Legros at the Slade (1878–80). At the Slade, Gotch became close friends with Henry Scott Tuke and Caroline Yates (fl 1880–96), whom he married in 1881. While studying in Paris in the early 1880s Gotch began to practise the plein-air approach later associated with the NEWLYN SCHOOL. Mental Arithmetic (1883; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria), painted in Newlyn, exemplifies the Newlyn painters’ concern with light conditions and traditional rural themes.

Gottlieb Adolph (1903-74). U.S. *Abstract Expressionist painter, with *Rothko and others a founder of the *Ten Group, N.Y. (1935). Early m the 1940s, under the influence of primitive art, he invented the 'pictograph', the compartmental arrangement of symbolic calligraphic motifs. Later he concentrated on exploring the relationship between 2 contrasted shapes and produced a series of 'burst' paintings. His decorative works include murals for the Post Office, Yerington, Nevada (1939), and tapestries for the Synagogue, Millburn, New Jersey (1951).

Gouache. Watercolour paint made opaque by the addition of white. Effects similar to those of oil paint can be obtained with g. but it has the defects of lightening m colour as it dries and cracking if used thickly. It was used by the medieval ins. illuminators and later by many continental artists. In Britain it was less popular than transparent watercolour but was used by Sandby. It has been revived by 2Oth-c. painters and designers. In less good quality it is known as poster colour.

Goya Francisco Francisco Jose de Goya у Lucientes (1746-1828). Spanish painter and graphic artist. Born at Fuendetodos, by 1760 G. was apprenticed in Saragossa to Jose Luzan, an artist who studied under Neapolitan masters. Francisco Bayeu, a former pupil of Luzan, had won fame in Madrid as assistant to the royal painter A. R. Mengs, and G. followed Bayeu, became his pupil and married his sister in 1773. Meanwhile, in 1771, С had made a visit (which is rich in legend if not m facts) to Italy and he painted commissions for churches in the vicinity of Saragossa at the end of the same year. He settled in Madrid in 1775 and in 1776 was commissioned to paint cartoons for the royal tapestry works. At first G. followed conventional subjects, the court pastorals that relied on French and German Rococo models and the painting of Tiepolo and the Neapolitans. Soon, however, his own painting became noticeably freer and he introduced scenes observed from Spanish life, e.g. Stilt Walkers, Blind Guitarist. In the course of his work he was admitted to the Royal Сolls where he engraved copies of Velazquez. Stimulated by Velazquez and by mezzotints after Gainsborough and Reynolds, he began to paint portraits. The 1780s record his increasing fame and an amazing variety of activity. In 1782 he portrayed the powerful minister Floridablanca; in 1786 he painted Charles in Hunting. He had many commissions from the Church including the 2 St Francis Borgia scenes for Valencia cathedral. Among small works he did for his own pleasure is the remarkable view of Madrid, Fiesta of San Isidero. In 1780 he had submitted his Crucifixion to the academy of San Fernando, being elected a member unanimously and appointed deputy director in 178 s:. At the court he was progressively pintor del reу (1786), pintor de camara (1789), and primer pintor de camara (1799). A change in his style is noticeable after his illness in 1792, which left him deaf. The portraits show greater insight, e.g. Dr Peral, and almost cruel objectivity in the famous Charles IV and Family. G.'s attachment to the duchess of Alba is celebrated in 2 fine portraits. He castigated the follies of the court, superstition and the vanity of women in Los eaprichos, his engravings of 1796-8. In the same period he painted the Maja Clothed and Maja Unclothed. His religious paintings arc revolutionarily free in technique, but obviously profoundly felt, e.g. Betrayal of Christ and the frescoes of S. Antonio de la Florida, Madrid. Subsequently G. chronicled the horrors of Napoleonic occupation in The Second of May (Uprising) and The Third of May (Executions) as well as in the engravings Disasters of War and his drawings. After the restoration of the reactionary Ferdinand VII, G. retired to the outskirts of Madrid. The decorations in his own house, called during his lifetime the House of the Deaf Man, now removed to the Prado, remain among the strangest and most original paintings ever painted both in subject and technique. They include Witches' Sabbath, Saturn Devouring his Child and Fantastic Vision. In a self-chosen exile in France G. continued to paint, engrave and practise lithography with undiminished vigour until his death. Milkmaid of Bordeaux, one of his last works, has a frenzied brushwork which looks forward to the effects of the Post-Impressionists. G. was the favourite of French writers such as Baudelaire. Artists of almost every major school have been influenced by his work in painting and the graphic arts from Delacroix and Gericault, Manet and Daumier to Kathe Kollwitz and Picasso.

Gozzoli Benozzo. Name adopted by Benozzo di Lese (c. 1421-97). Florentine painter. Best known for the Procession of the Magi frescoes in the Medici-Riccardi Palace, Florence, G. was an assistant to both L. Ghiberti and Fra Angelico before painting frescoes and altar-pieces in a number of towns, including Rome, San Gimignano and Pisa. A typical altarpiece is The Virgin with Saints.



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