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Rabine-Ricci Richard-Rossetti Rossi-Rysselberghe

Richard Fleury-Francois (b Lyon, 25 Feb 1777; d Ecully, Rhone, 14 March 1852). French painter. After being taught by Alexis Grognard (1752–1840) at the Ecole de Dessin in Lyon, he entered Jacques-Louis David’s studio in 1796, where he was part of the group that included Pierre Révoil, Comte Auguste de Forbin and François-Marius Granet. His earliest works, such as Death of Constantine (untraced), were in a banal Neo-classical style. However, he exhibited a painting in the Salon of 1800 that was novel in both subject and atmosphere: St Blandine (untraced; known from a drawing by A. M. Monsaldy, Paris, Bib. N.). It honoured a medieval saint, a heroine who was French, Christian and from Lyon; the scene was set in a crypt painted from life (St Irénée in Lyon) and exploited a strong chiaroscuro. Henceforth Richard took his inspiration from French history. At the Salon of 1802 he exhibited Valentina of Milan Weeping over the Death of her Husband (untraced; known from an engraving by Auguste Fauchery), which proved to be a huge success. The painting was hailed as an innovation and can be considered the first picture in the TROUBADOUR STYLE. Richard combined the genre scene and anecdote from national history, using a technique inherited from 17th-century Dutch painters. Wishing, as he wrote, to ‘ennoble the humble bambocciata tradition’, he introduced a moral example of the widow faithful to her husband’s memory. The picture owed its success to the fact that Richard had both displayed a certain exoticism by placing the figure in a medieval oratory and transposed the severe, classical exemplum virtutis into a simpler and more moving genre.

Richter Gerhard (1932— ). German *Post-modern painter who works in a wide variety of styles. In the early 1960s, influenced by U.S. *Pop and *Fluxus, he produced black-and-white 'photo-paintings' from ominous-looking *found photographs of World War II images in newspapers and magazines. He transferred them on to canvas and then blurred them with the use of a dry brush. The charged images were flattened and made deadpan and neutral, e.g. Act
Lehrnschwestern (1966). Soon after R.'s work rapidly diversified. His Farbtafeln ('Colour Charts') series (1966—74) consisted of over 4,000 canvases of flat colour samples. His Stadtbilder ('Townscapcs') series (1968—73) is based on aerial photographs of cities, on which he made expressionistic brush-strokes that transform the original photographs into abstract colour patterns. In his series of 'Gray Paintings' (1967—74) and 'Colour Streaks' (1968) he produced pure, post-*Minimalist abstractions of great emotional depth. R. continued to pursue simultaneously figurative and abstract art in deliberate rejection of any distinction between the two. A notable example is the series of The Annunciation after Titian (1972) in which his faithful rendering of the Titian painting is progressively dissolved into pure abstraction. From the late 1970s he has been producing large-scale abstracts of extraordinary colour, sensuality and atmospheric depth which hint at a visionary beyond, along with work using photographs. In Achtundvicrzieg Portraits (1972) and 18. Oktober 1977 (1988) R. shows the relationship between photography and painting.

 Richter Hans (1888-1976). German painter and pioneer of the avant-garde film. He joined the *Dada group in Zurich (1916) and in 19T7 painted his 1st abstracts. In 1918 he began to develop abstract themes on rolls of paper and in 1921 produced his 1st abstract film, Rhythm 21.
He was connected with Surrealist cinema in the late '20s. In 1941 he settled in the U.S.A. His films include Dreams Thai Money Can Buy (1947), with contributions by Calder, Duchamp, Ernst, Leger and Man Ray.

Richter Ludwig Adrian (b Dresden, 28 Sept 1803; d Dresden, 19 June 1884). German painter, printmaker and illustrator. He ranks with Moritz von Schwind as the most important representative of late Romantic painting and printmaking in Germany. In contrast to the work of such leading masters of early Romanticism as Philipp Otto Runge and Caspar David Friedrich, which was ambitious in content and innovative in form, Richter’s art was more modest in its aims, in line with the restrained intellectual climate of the Biedermeier period.

Rickey George (1907-2002) was an American kinetic sculptor.

Rie Cramer (Dutch, 1887-1977)

Riemenschneider Tilman (c. 1460— 1531). German late Gothic sculptor active in Wurzburg and famed for his work in wood; it includes the Ascension of the Virgin on the altar in the church of Our Lord, Creglmgen. In stone he executed the tombs of bishops Scherenberg and Bibra in Wurzburg cathedral and the memorial sarcophagus in Bamberg cathedral of its 11th-c. founder, the Emperor Henry II, and his wife.

Riley Bridget  (1931- ). British painter. She studied at Goldsmith's College of Art, London (1949-52) and at the Royal College of Art (1952—5) where her contemporaries were P. *Blake, R. *Smith and *Tilson. The start of a clear direction in her work came in 1956 in response to an exhibition of U.S. post-war art at the 'Late Gal., and in the ideas of H. Thubron and V. Pasmore in "The Developing Process' exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London. In i960 the Futurists *Boccioni and *Balla made a great impression, as did the U.S. *Color-field painters. Soon she was on her way in developing the perceptual-optical implications which have characterized her work ever since, encouraged by Anton Ehrenzweig. Her contribution to the M.O.M.A., N.Y., exhibition 'The Responsive Eye' attracted international recognition, and in Г968 she won the International Prize for Painting at the Venice Biennale. Unlike other *Op artists, she employs variations in tone and colour in repeated units and varied measures, tempi and widths.

Rinaldi Antonio (1710-1794) was an Italian architect, trained by Luigi Vanvitelli, who worked mainly in Russia. In 1751, during a trip to England, he was summoned by hetman Kirill Razumovsky to decorate his residences in Ukraine. To this early period belong the Resurrection cathedral in Pochep near Bryansk and the Catherine Cathedral in Yamburg, now Kingisepp near St Petersburg (illustrated, right), where Rinaldi successfully expressed the domed, centrally-planned form required by traditional Russian Orthodox practice in a confident Italian Late Baroque vocabulary. His first important secular commission was the Novoznamenka chateau of Chancellor Woronzow. In 1754, he was appointed chief architect of the young court, i.e., the future Peter III and Catherine II, who resided at Oranienbaum. In that town he executed his best-known baroque designs: the Palace of Peter III (1758-60), the sumptuously decorated Chinese Palace (1762-68), and the Ice-Sliding Pavilion (1762-74).
In the 1770s, Rinaldi served as the main architect of Count Orlov, who was Catherine's prime favourite and the most powerful man in the country. During this period he built two grandiose Neoclassical residences, namely the Marble Palace on the Palace Embankment in St Petersburg and the roomy Gatchina Castle, which was subsequently acquired for Emperor Paul and partly remodeled. He also designed for Orlov several monuments in Tsarskoe Selo, notably the Orlov Gates, Kagul Obelisk and the Chesma Column. Rinaldi's last works represent a continuous transition from the dazzling rococo of interiors to the reserved and clear-cut treatment of facades characteristic of Neoclassicism. These include two St Petersburg cathedrals, one dedicated to St Isaac the Dalmatian and subsequently demolished to make way for the present Empire-style structure, and the other, dedicated to Prince Vladimir and still standing. In 1784, the old master resigned his posts on account of bad health and returned to Italy. He died in Rome on April 10, 1794.

Riopelle Jean-Paul (1923— ). French-Canadian painter, in Paris since 1948, associated with *Surrealism, later turning to * Action painting.

Rivera Diego (1886—1957). Mexican painter. He came under Cubist influence while working in Paris (1911-20) and on a visit to Italy (1920—1) was deeply impressed by Renaissance frescoes. He returned to Mexico in 1921 and painted several monumental mural decorations for the new socialist government's public buildings. In the U.S.A. (1930-3), he decorated the California Stock Exchange and Detroit Institute of Arts. His *Social Realism was responsible for the modern revival of Mexican art and was an important influence, through artists like Shahn, on the realist development in U.S. art in the J920S and 1930s.

Rivers Larry (1923- ). U.S. artist of the N.Y. school; he studied music at the Juillard school, N.Y., and became a jazz saxophonist; he began painting in 1947, studying with *Hofmann. Much of his early work is in an idiom related to *De Kooning and the *Abstract Expressionists, but he developed a basically figurative manner close to *Pop art, following his Washington Crossing the Delaware (1953), e.g. Dying and Dead Veteran, 1961.

Rixens Jean Andre. Jean André Rixens was a historical and portrait painter, born in Saint-Gaudens in 1846. In 1876 he made his debut at the Salon and went on to win a Third Class medal, a Second Class medal and, in 1889, a Gold Class medal at the Exposition Universelle. By 1900, Rixens had become a Chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur and a Member of the National Fine Art Society. He died in 1924.

Rizi Francisco (b Madrid, 1614; d Madrid, 2 Aug 1685). Painter and stage designer. He may well have received his early training from his father, but most sources indicate that he was also a pupil of Vicente Carducho, who refers to him as such in his will of 1638, in which he bequeathed him the sketchbook of his choice among those in his studio. Rizi’s contact with the court was probably due to Carducho, and by 1639 he was working with Alonso Cano and other artists of his generation in Madrid (Antonio Arias Fernandez, Jusepe Leonardo, Felix Castelo, Diego Polo and others) on the decoration (destr.) of the Salon Dorado (or Salon Grande) of the Alcázar. The decorative scheme, which had been designed by Carducho, consisted of portraits of the kings of Castile. Many works by Rizi are recorded in the 1640s, and in 1649, on the occasion of the state entry of Mariana of Austria, the second wife of Philip IV, into Madrid, he was responsible for organizing the street decorations and the temporary architectural structures. At the same time he was working in the royal theatre of the Palacio del Buen Retiro, Madrid, where he was engaged for many years, succeeding the Italians Baccio del Bianco and Cosimo Lotti as a specialist in theatre decoration.

Robert Hubert (1733-1808). French painter called 'Robert des Ruines'. He went to Rome (1754) where the example of *Pannini led him to devote himself to painting rums. He also became a close friend of *Fragonard with whom he visited Paestum and Naples. On his return to Paris (1765) he painted imaginary landscapes with i8th-c. figures in settings of classical rums. He was imprisoned during the Revolution but saved by the fill of Robespierre.

Robert Ercole de'. * Ercole de' Roberti

Roberts David  (October 24, 1796 – November 25, 1864) was a Scottish painter. He is especially known for a prolific series of detailed prints of Egypt and the Near East produced during the 1840s from sketches made during long tours of the region (1838-1840). This work, and his large oil paintings of similar subjects, made him a prominent Orientalist painter. He was elected as a Royal Academician in 1841.

Roberts William (1895—1980). British painter in a Cubist idiom applied to scenes of working-class life; associated with the *Vorticist movement, member of the *London Group and an official war artist in World Wars I and II.

Rocker. Tool used in mezzotint (*engraving) to roughen the plate.

Rococo (Fr. rocaille: shell-work). 18th-c. style, essentially French, a reaction against the ponderous and formal atmosphere of Louis XIV's court, and therefore adapted to the decoration of intimate interiors, using soft colours and delicate curves to produce gay, elegant and charming effects. The painting of the period (*Watteau, *Boucher, *Fragonard) has the same qualities. In the 2nd half of the 1 8th c. R. gave way to *Neoclassicism. The other main centre (notably of R. churches, e.g. of Dominikus Zimmermann) was S. Germany and Austria; elsewhere R. produced important individual works (e.g. by Tiepolo, Goya) but was never the dominant movement.

Rodchenko Alexander (1 891 —1956). Russian painter, photographer and designer who, settling
in Mexico in 1914, came under the influence of *Tatlin and *Suprematism. In 1915 he began doing abstract compositions with a ruler and compass. In 1918 he exhibited his Black on Black series of paintings m answer to *Malevich's White on White and from this period R. became a leader of a group of 'non-objectivist' artists who in 1922 decided to leave easel painting and 'speculative activity' for industrial design, calling themselves *Constructivists. R. began working as a typographer, photographer and furniture designer, applying his principles of abstract design to create a modern system of design, since become universal.

Rodgers Terry (born September 11, 1947) is an American figurative painter known for his large scale canvases that focus on portraying contemporary body politics. He was born in Newark, New Jersey and raised in Washington, D.C., He graduated cum laude from Amherst College in Massachusetts in 1969, with a major in Fine Arts. His strong interest in film and photography influenced his style in the direction of representational realism in art. In 2005, three of his monumental figurative canvases were presented at the Valencia Biennial. Abroad he has had solo exhibitions in galleries in Amsterdam, Zurich and Milan, and participated in group shows around the world. In the United States, he has had solo gallery exhibitions in New York, Los Angeles, Atlanta, and Chicago. He has also exhibited at numerous museums in the US including the Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville, the Erie Art Museum and the Mobile Museum of Art. Abroad, his work has been exhibited at the Stedelijk Museum - 's-Hertogenbosch, the Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung in Munich, the Museum Franz Gertsch in Burgdorf, the Museum Folkwang in Essen, the Gemeentemuseum Helmond, the Scheringa Museum of Realist Art in Spanbroek and at the Kunsthal Rotterdam.

Rodia Simon naive architect, a Neapolitan tiler who emigrated to the United States and built the Watts Towers (1921-51) near Los Angeles.

Rodin Auguste (1840-1917). French sculptor who until 1882 worked as a craftsman in porcelain factories and workshops. His 1st sculptures, bronze portrait busts which he made in the evenings, were rejected by the Salon. Working in Brussels (1871-7), he paid his 1st visit to Italy (1874—5) and was overwhelmed by Michelangelo's spiritual intensity and his vigorous modelling of the figure. R.'s 1st Salon success, Age of Bronze (1 875—7), reflects this rippling lifelike vitality and was such a sensational contrast to academic conventions that he was accused of using life-casts. He made St John the Baptist (1878-80) larger than life to disprove this. His mature work, either in bronze or marble (often deliberately left in a Michelangelesque half-finished state), developed an intense emotional expressiveness and the tragic Burghers of Calais (1884—6) illustrates his identification of composition with psychological content. The Gate of Hell, a doorway commissioned for the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris (1880—1917) was unfinished, but several motifs from it — The Thinker (1880), The Kiss (1886), etc. - were developed separately. Balzac (1893—4) was his outstanding portrait, but was only cast in 1939. R.'s great influence lay in his fusion of the Realist and Symbolist streams of the late 19th с and in works such as Le Jongleur (1909) he foreshadowed the 20th-c. preoccupation with space.

Roerich Nicholas (1874—1947). Russian landscape painter, archaeologist and stage designer, an important member of the St Petersburg *World of Art group. His archaeological excavations influenced both Ins painting and his sets for Diaghilev's Paris production of Prince Igor (1909). In 1918 he left Russia for the U.S.A. and India.

Rohe, Ludwig Mies van der born March 27, 1886, Aachen, Ger. died Aug. 17, 1969, Chicago, Ill., U.S. Original name Maria Ludwig Michael Mies German-born American architect whose rectilinear forms, crafted in elegant simplicity, epitomized the International Style (q.v.) of architecture.

Roka Charles (1912-1999) was a Hungarian painter living in Norway whose name became synonymous with an excess of artistic kitsch. Roka was born in Hungary in 1912. After he finished his studies on the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest he went to a European journey. In 1937 he finally settled in Norway, and lived in Bærum, outside Oslo until his death. Roka attended one year at the Academy in Oslo. In 1939 he painted his first picture of the half-naked Gipsy Girl whom he had seen in Marseille a few years earlier. It is Roka's numerous variations of this Gipsy Girl which made his financial success as a painter, but misfortune as an artist. Roka was despised by the art world, he was nevertheless loved by the people. He became famous for his numerous variations of the Gipsy Girl, exotic looking Gypsies in a pin-up style and sentimental portraits of children with their pet dogs. His other favourite subjects were Hungarian folklore, especially Gipsy people dancing csárdás. Roka had several exhibitions in Madrid, Barcelona, and Lausanne and he was very popular among the average Scandinavian people. In 1982 illness stopped him working. In 2005 Haugar Vestfold Kunstmuseum held a summer exhibition under the title Prince of Kitsch displaying about 80 of his works. It was the first time that a venerable art gallery let Roka's works within its walls.

Romanesque. In W. European architecture, sculpture, painting and the minor arts the style which evolved in the mid-10th c. following Charlemagne's revival of the arts and lasted until the late 12th с Its architectural characteristics are: round arches, thick columns or composite piers, thick walls, heavy proportions, small windows and tunnel-vaults. There are great regional variations within R. Italy remained close to classical models; France was divided into different schools, e.g. Aquitaine favoured domes, Provence low single-storey naves (Avignon), Auvergne a heightening of the transepts next to the crossing (Issoire), etc.; Britain followed Normandy with very long basilican churches, mostly with square E. ends and 2-tower W. fronts (Durham); Germany went on developing R. after other countries had turned to Gothic. In the late 12th с (beginning in the Ile-de-France) the development of vaulting techniques and the desire for more light led to the evolution of Gothic. Relief sculpture was used extensively in R. churches, especially on the capitals of the interior columns and the tympana; tree-standing sculpture appeared only at the end of the period. Many mural paintings have survived in churches in France, Italy and Spam. As in architecture there is great stylistic variety within R. painting and sculpture which combines elements from the early Christian-Byzantine tradition and, particularly in N. Europe, barbarian art. Common features arc distorted elongated figures, stylized vegetation, geometric and interlaced patterning and strong rhythmic movement. Similar characteristics appear in the jewellery, metalwork and ms. illumination which flourished during the period.

Romanist. Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th c. whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting, usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Mabuse, B. van Orley, M. van Heemskerk, Q. Massys and M. van Reymerswaele are important R.s.

Romano Giulio. (1492 or 1499-1546). Italian Mannerist painter and architect, a pupil of Raphael, whom he assisted in the Vatican Stanze and Loggie. He continued Raphael's later style, but with harsher colours, greater distortions and more violent composition; he also did a famous series of pornographic engravings. In 1524 he went to Mantua in the service of the duke and turned mainly to architecture. There he built the Palazzo del Те (1526—34), his masterpiece and the prime example of Mannerist architecture: orthodox classical motifs are wilfully misused, rhythms irregular, keystones dropped, columns left rough as if from the quarry, etc. The impression of instability is epitomized in the Sala dei Giganti (also painted by G.R.), where the architecture of the room appears to be on the point of collapsing; the illusionistic frescoes The Fall of the Titans covering the whole room from floor to ceiling, showed a melodramatic exaggeration of Raphael's style.

see also:
Giulio Romano (2)

Romanticism. A profound revolution in the human spirit gathering momentum in the 18th с and in full flood in the 19th. The movement in the arts was at its height during the 50 years с 1790—r. [840. The most important elements in R. were: feeling for nature (foreshadowed by the *picturesque); emphasis on subjective sensibility and emotion and on imagination, as opposed to reason; and interest in the past, the mysterious and the exotic.
R. in painting began in Britain in the works of *Constable and *Turner, which show a new awareness of landscape; later the paintings of *Palmer (a disciple of W. *Blake) reveal an essential Romantic genius. In Germany, the medieval townscapes of *Shinkel and *Schwind and the mysterious landscapes of *Friedrich are typical manifestations of R. *Goya in Spain is uniquely R. In France, *Gericault and *Delacroix.

Rome, school of. School of Italian painting of importance from the mid- 15th to the late 19th c. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome, making it the centre of the High Renaissance; in the 17th с it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. From the 17th с the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin, Claude, Piranesi, Pannini and Mengs.

Rooke Thomas Matthews English Pre-Raphaelite Painter, 1842-1942

Rops Felicien (1833—98). Belgian graphic artist, a master of etching techniques. He settled in Paris in the mid-1870s and acquired a reputation for satanism and decadence.

Rosenquist James (1933— ). U.S. painter. He 1st worked as a billboard painter in and around N.Y., 1953—8, which influenced his work. With his 1962 I-man show — in the same year as *Lichtenstein, *Warhol, *Wesselmann and *Indiana also exhibited — R. emerged as one of the leading U.S. *Pop artists, e.g. F-III (1965).

Rosicrucians. A loose grouping of *Symbolist artists led by the Sar (Josephm) Peladan, a prolific writer who was a believer in the occult doctrines of the supposed I5th-c. visionary Christian Rosenkreuz. His followers exhibited their work in the Salons of the Rose-Croix held in Paris, 1892—7. Among the more typical Rosicrucian painters were Charles Filiger (also associated with Gauguin and the school of Pont-Aven), Arrnand Point, Edgard Maxence and Marcellm Desboutin. The chief role of the Salons, however, was to draw attention to the work of important Symbolist painters who were not French, such as the Swiss *Hodler and the Dutchman *Toorop.

Rosselli Cosimo (1439—1507). Florentine painter who had an important share in the decoration of the Sistine Chapel for Sixtus IV. In Florence his paintings include frescoes in S. Annunziata and S. Ambrogio. He worked m .1 severe static manner. Fra Bartolommeo and Piero di Cosimo were his pupils.

Rossetti Biagio (circa 1447 - 1516), was an Italian architect and urbanist from Ferrara. A military engineer since 1483, and the ducal arhictect of Ercole d'Este I, in 1492 Rossetti was assigned the project of enlarging the city of Ferrara.
Rossetti is considered the first architect in the history of urbanistics to make use of the advantages of the modern methods: balancing the humanistic principles in architecture, the real needs of the city, and local traditions. Beginning in 1495, he projected and directed construction of the defense walls around the city. After Ercole's death in 1505, Rossetti served the Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, in which role he was responsible for the creation of many notable palazzi and churches.

Rossetti Dante Gabriel  (1828-82). British poet and painter, son of Gabriele R. With *Millais and H. *Hunt he was a founder of the *Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. As a painter R.'s Romantic imagination was out of sympathy with the Realism and moral earnestness of Millais and Hunt and their early association was brief. The most famous painting of his cat К period is Ecce Ancilla Domini (1850). Between 1850 and 1860 R. worked chiefly in watet colour; also important are his drawings of his wife Elizabeth Siddal and the idealized portrait of her, Beala Beatrix. She and Mrs William Morris provided R. with an ideal of feminine beauty which is recurrent in his work. His late paintings were chiefly on Arthurian and Dantesque themes.

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