History of  Literature



Hebrew literature



Judah ben Samuel Halevi

Judah ha-Levi, Hebrew in full Yehuda Ben Shemuel ha-Levi (b. c. 1075, Tudela, Kingdom of Pamplona [Navarre]—d. July 1141, Egypt), Jewish poet and religious philosopher. His works were the culmination of the development of Hebrew poetry within the Arabic cultural sphere. Among his major works are the poems collected in Dīwān, the “Zionide” poems celebrating Zion, and the Sefer ha-Kuzari (“Book of the Khazar”), presenting his philosophy of Judaism in dialogue form.

Judah ha-Levi was born in the town of Tudela in northern Spain. At the time of his birth, most of Spain, including his native town, was still under Muslim rule, but the Reconquista, the Christian sovereigns’ struggle to regain the territories lost to the Muslims, was already under way. In 1085 King Alfonso VI of Castile conquered Toledo and made it his capital, and the exploits of the Cid, the celebrated national hero of Spain, also fall into the same period. Judah ha-Levi, whose poetic gifts manifested themselves unusually early, spent his childhood in the Christian part of the country, but even as a boy he felt himself drawn to Muslim Spain, then one of the principal cultural centres of Europe.

Judah ha-Levi went to Andalusia in southern Spain some time before 1090, where he established contact with local Hebrew poets and intellectuals, and justly attracted considerable attention by his impressive talent. The most famous Hebrew poet of the time, Moses ibn Ezra from Granada, invited Judah ha-Levi to visit him, and the two sealed a bond of lifelong friendship. His stay in Granada, enjoyed in the company of Ibn Ezra, was a period of success and happiness. He expressed his good spirits in several poems. This pleasant period ended in 1090 when Granada was stormed by the Almoravids, North African Berber disciples of a zealous Muslim movement, who now established an orthodox and intolerant regime in Andalusia. It is not known with any certainty whether Judah ha-Levi witnessed the Almoravid invasion in Granada or elsewhere, but the event greatly influenced the remainder of his life and his world view.

In his youth Judah ha-Levi also spent time in other Jewish centres of Andalusia, for example, in Lucena, a town of predominantly Jewish population in which a noted yeshiva, or academy for Jewish theological studies, was located. He composed a poetic epitaph when Isaac Alfasi, the head of the institution, died in 1103 and maintained very friendly relations with his successor, Joseph ibn Migash, for whom he even wrote letters. Judah ha-Levi also spent a certain amount of time in Sevilla (Seville), where he was poorly received by some wealthy Jews, on whom he revenged himself by denouncing their greed and ignorance in biting satirical verses. There are intimations in his poems that he must once have known material distress and depended on the good will of generous patrons.

Judah ha-Levi finally made his way, however, and became independent. Disappointed with the Almoravid regime, he turned toward Christian Castile and settled in its capital city of Toledo. There he worked untiringly as a physician, one of the professions open to Jews in Christian surroundings, a profession which in fact brought them into close contact with those surroundings.

As a resident of Toledo he celebrated prominent Castilian Jews in his verses, particularly the successful courtier Joseph ibn Ferruziel, better known by his Hispano-Arabic sobriquet Cidellus, who distinguished himself as a physician and adviser to King Alfonso VI. Judah ha-Levi for a while believed that the fortunes of his sorely tried people would flourish in Castile, but his hopes were destroyed by successive disappointments. Solomon ibn Ferruziel, a nephew of Cidellus who was also actively in the service of the Castilian state, was to return to Toledo from an important mission in Aragon. Along the way he was assassinated by Christian Spaniards on May 3, 1108. Judah ha-Levi had already composed a very elaborate poem to celebrate the reception of the Jewish statesman, which he had to set aside. He composed a long official elegy for the murdered man, ending it with a curse against the “Daughter of Edom,” sinful Christianity. Additional acts of violence were committed against Jews in Castile, and, still worse, it was often they who suffered in the clashes between the Almoravid realm and the Christian kingdoms in Spain. Distrusted, plundered, and slain by both sides, it was as though they were between hammer and anvil. Judah ha-Levi recognized the complete hopelessness of their situation and portrayed it in his poems.

Medieval Jews tried again and again to decipher the mysterious dates of their deliverance cited in the Book of Daniel and sought to apply them to their own time. Judah ha-Levi’s works contain a reference to Daniel in a prophetic poem, in which the poet said that he had learned in a dream of the impending collapse of the Muslim empire in 1130. In the last years of his life he apparently returned in resignation to Muslim Spain and lived in Córdoba, which remained an important centre of Jewish culture even in the period of decline. Judah ha-Levi had a very wide circle of acquaintances and maintained relationships with many famous contemporaries in Spain as well as abroad. He managed to gain a certain prosperity and lived in his house surrounded by a loving family and a few disciples. Yet he was thoroughly dissatisfied with his life. As old age approached he felt an increasing need to travel to Jerusalem, writing about it at length in verse and prose. The epilogue of the Kuzari explains his attachment to Zion and sounds like a farewell to Spain. Among his many poems celebrating the Holy Land is “Zionide” (“Ode to Zion”), his most famous work and the most widely translated Hebrew poem of the Middle Ages. He also carried on a heated controversy in verse with the opponents of his Zionist ideas.

Judah ha-Levi thought about and prepared for his journey to the Holy Land for many years. He was aided by a good friend, Halfon ha-Levi-Aldamyati, a very rich and cultivated Egyptian Jew whose trade relations extended as far as Yemen and India and who also frequently visited Spain. Judah ha-Levi left Spain in 1140. According to his carefully laid plans, he was first to embark for Egypt and then to proceed from there via the land route to Palestine. Aboard ship he composed a whole series of sea songs, which in both theme and mood represented a considerable innovation in Hebrew literature. His ship entered Alexandria harbour on May 3, 1140, where he, along with a large Jewish party, was splendidly received. He was lodged in the magnificent home of Aaron ibn al-ʿAmmānī, a noted Jewish physician and judge, and stayed in Egypt for several months. Many prominent Jews of the country came to admire him and to make his acquaintance, and he acquired many friends. From Alexandria he went to Cairo, or Fustat, the city where lived Samuel ben Hananiah, the Nagid, or head, of all Egyptian Jews, and there he was further acclaimed. Judah ha-Levi felt deep awe and humility in the land in which some of the biblical miracles had occurred and at the same time a kind of delight in all the beauties that revealed themselves to him. It seemed to him that his youth was restored; creative forces stirred within him, and he wrote prolifically and easily. But he certainly always bore in mind his sacred destination and was often disturbed by the thought that death might yet intervene.

Judah ha-Levi did not in fact go beyond Egypt, although it is not known what detained him there. He died in 1141 and was deeply mourned in Egypt. His death was romantically embellished in a legend that arose much later, according to which he was slain by a hostile Muslim just as he had arrived in Zion and was reciting his famous “Zionide.” The legend found wide circulation and was repeated in detail by two well-known 19th-century poets, in German by Heinrich Heine in the Romanzero of 1851 and in Hebrew by Micah Judah Lebensohn in Rabbi Yehudah ha-Levi in 1869.

Judah ha-Levi was strongly influenced by Arabian literature, elements of which he ingeniously assimilated. His great collection of poems entitled Dīwān includes secular and religious poetry, both of which express passionate attachment to Zion (the land of Israel). For the poet, the Holy Land was not only a site where the Jewish people would one day gather after their deliverance from exile; immigration and settlement in Palestine would also hasten the coming of the Messiah. He celebrated Jerusalem in song as had none of his medieval predecessors. He also expounded his views on the nature of Judaism in an Arabic prose work consisting of dialogues between a learned Jew and the Khazar king who was converted to Judaism in the 8th century. It was widely circulated in Hebrew translation under the title Sefer ha-Kuzari.

Jefim H. Schirmann



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