Greek and Roman Myths in Art
 

 


Mars


 

 

 

 


see also:

The Odyssey of Homer


illustrations by John Flaxman

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Greek and Roman Myths in Art

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see also EXPLORATION (in Russian):

Homer  "Iliad "and "Odyssey"

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Apuleius "The Golden Asse"

illustrations by Jean de Bosschere and Martin Van Maele

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Longus

"The Pastorals, or the Loves of Daphnis and Chloe"

illustrations by Marc Chagall

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Greek and Roman Myths in Art
 

 


Mars, Vulcan, Ceres
 

 


Mars
 


Mars

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Roman god

ancient Roman deity, in importance second only to Jupiter. Little is known of his original character, and that character (chiefly from the cult at Rome) is variously interpreted. It is clear that by historical times he had developed into a god of war; in Roman literature he was protector of Rome, a nation proud in war.

Mars’s festivals at Rome occurred in the spring and the fall—the beginning and the end of both the agricultural and the military seasons. The month of March, which was named after him, was especially filled with festivals wholly or partially in his honour; the members of the ancient priesthood of the Salii, who were particularly associated with Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus, came out several times during the month to dance their ceremonial war dance in old-fashioned armour and chant a hymn to the gods. October was also an important month for Mars. At the festival of the October Horse on October 15, a two-horse chariot race was held in the Campus Martius, and on October 19 the Armilustrium marked the purification of the arms of war and their storage for the winter. The god was invoked in the ancient hymn of the Arval Brothers, whose religious duties had as their object to keep off enemies of all kinds from crops and herds.

Until the time of Augustus, Mars had only two temples at Rome: one was in the Campus Martius, the exercising ground of the army; the other was outside the Porta Capena. Within the city there was a sacrarium (“shrine,” or “sanctuary”) of Mars in the regia, originally the king’s house, in which the sacred spears of Mars were kept; upon the outbreak of war the consul had to shake the spears saying, “Mars vigila” (“Mars, wake up!”).

Under Augustus the worship of Mars at Rome gained a new impetus; not only was he traditional guardian of the military affairs of the Roman state but, as Mars Ultor (“Mars the Avenger”), he became the personal guardian of the emperor in his role as avenger of Caesar. His worship at times rivaled that of Capitoline Jupiter, and about ad 250 Mars became the most prominent of the di militares (“military gods”) worshiped by the Roman legions. In literature and art he is hardly distinguished from the Greek Ares.

There are several Roman myths about Mars. In one, Hera bore him, without Zeus, at the touch of a magic herb given her by Flora. In another, he was the father of Romulus and Remus by Rhea Silvia, a Vestal Virgin. Ovid, in Fasti, tells of Mars’s attempt to seduce Minerva. In the only purely Roman myth, he is tricked into marrying the aged Anna Perenna.

 

Peter
Paul
Rubens
1577-1640
Belgium

The Consequences of War (Mars).

 


Peter
Paul
Rubens
1577-1640
Belgium
 
The Triumph of Mars.

 

Peter
Paul
Rubens
1577-1640
Belgium
The Triumph of Mars.

 

Diego
Velazquez
1599-1660
Spain

Mars.

 

 


Vulcan
 

 

Piero
di
Cosimo
1462-1521
Italy

The Finding of Vulcan on Lemnos.
1505

 

Piero
di
Cosimo
1462-1521
Italy
Vulcan and Aeolus.
1500

 

Luca
Giordano
1632-1705
Italy

The Forge of Vulcan.
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

 

Diego
Velazquez
1599-1660
Spain

The Forge of Vulcan.

 

 


Ceres
 

 

Adam
Elsheimer
1578-1610
Germany
Ceres and Stellio.
Museo del Prado, Madrid

 

Peter
Paul
Rubens
1577-1640
Belgium

The Statue of Ceres.

 

Gustave
Moreau
1826-1898
France

Ceres.

 

Boris
Vallejo
1964-
USA

  Demeter and Persephone.

 

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