born April 27, 1820, Derby, Derbyshire, Eng.
died Dec. 8, 1903, Brighton, Sussex
English sociologist and philosopher, an early advocate of the theory of
evolution, who achieved an influential synthesis of knowledge,
advocating the preeminence of the individual over society and of science
over religion. His magnum opus was The Synthetic Philosophy, a
comprehensive work completed in 1896 and containing volumes on the
principles of biology, psychology, morality, and sociology.
Life and works.
Spencer’s father, William George Spencer, was a schoolmaster, and his
parents’ dissenting religious convictions inspired in him a
nonconformity that continued active even after he had abandoned the
Christian faith. Spencer declined an offer from his uncle, the Rev.
Thomas Spencer, to send him to Cambridge, and in consequence his higher
education was largely the result of his own reading, which was chiefly
in the natural sciences. He was, for a few months, a schoolteacher and
from 1837 to 1841 a railway civil engineer.
In 1842 he contributed some letters (republished later as a pamphlet,
The Proper Sphere of Government, 1843) to The Nonconformist, in which he
argued that it is the business of governments to uphold natural rights
and that they do more harm than good when they go beyond this. After
some association with progressive journalism through such papers as The
Zoist (devoted to mesmerism and phrenology) and The Pilot (the organ of
the Complete Suffrage Union), Spencer became in 1848 a subeditor of The
Economist. In 1851 he published Social Statics (reissued in 1955), which
contained in embryo most of his later views, including his argument in
favour of an extreme form of economic and social laissez-faire. About
1850 Spencer became acquainted with Marian Evans (the novelist George
Eliot), and his philosophical conversations with her led some of their
friends to expect that they would marry; but in his Autobiography (1904)
Spencer denies any such desire, much as he admired Evans’ intellectual
powers. Other friends were G.H. Lewes, T.H. Huxley, and J.S. Mill. In
1853 Spencer, having received a legacy from his uncle, resigned his
position with The Economist.
Having published the first part of The Principles of Psychology in
1855, Spencer in 1860 issued a prospectus and accepted subscriptions for
a comprehensive work, The Synthetic Philosophy, which was to include,
besides the already published Principles of Psychology, volumes on first
principles and on biology, sociology, and morality. First Principles was
published in 1862, and between then and 1896, when the third volume of
The Principles of Sociology appeared, the task was completed. In order
to prepare the ground for The Principles of Sociology, Spencer started
in 1873 a series of works called Descriptive Sociology, in which
information was provided about the social institutions of various
societies, both primitive and civilized. The series was interrupted in
1881 because of lack of public support. Spencer was a friend and adviser
of Beatrice Potter, later Beatrice Webb, the social reformer, who
frequently visited Spencer during his last illness and left a
sympathetic and sad record of his last years in My Apprenticeship
(1926). Spencer died in 1903, at Brighton, leaving a will by which
trustees were set up to complete the publication of the Descriptive
Sociology. The series comprised 19 parts (1873–1934).
Spencer was one of the most argumentative and most discussed English
thinkers of the Victorian period. His strongly scientific orientation
led him to urge the importance of examining social phenomena in a
scientific way. He believed that all aspects of his thought formed a
coherent and closely ordered system. Science and philosophy, he held,
gave support to and enhanced individualism and progress. Though it is
natural to cite him as the great exponent of Victorian optimism, it is
notable that he was by no means unaffected by the pessimism that from
time to time clouded the Victorian confidence. Evolution, he taught,
would be followed by dissolution, and individualism would come into its
own only after an era of socialism and war.
The synthetic philosophy in outline.
Spencer saw philosophy as a synthesis of the fundamental principles of
the special sciences, a sort of scientific summa to replace the
theological systems of the Middle Ages. He thought of unification in
terms of development, and his whole scheme was in fact suggested to him
by the evolution of biological species. In First Principles he argued
that there is a fundamental law of matter, which he called the law of
the persistence of force, from which it follows that nothing homogeneous
can remain as such if it is acted upon, because any external force must
affect some part of it differently from other parts and cause difference
and variety to arise. From this, he continued, it would follow that any
force that continues to act on what is homogeneous must bring about an
increasing variety. This “law of the multiplication of effects,” due to
an unknown and unknowable absolute force, is in Spencer’s view the clue
to the understanding of all development, cosmic as well as biological.
It should be noted that Spencer published his idea of the evolution of
biological species before the views of Charles Darwin and the British
naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace were known, but Spencer at that time
thought that evolution was caused by the inheritance of acquired
characteristics, whereas Darwin and Wallace attributed it to natural
selection. Spencer later accepted the theory that natural selection was
one of the causes of biological evolution, and he himself coined the
phrase “survival of the fittest” (Principles of Biology , vol. 1,
Sociology and social philosophy. That Spencer first derived his
general evolutionary scheme from reflection on human society is seen in
Social Statics, in which social evolution is held to be a process of
increasing “individuation.” He saw human societies as evolving by means
of increasing division of labour from undifferentiated hordes into
complex civilizations. Spencer believed that the fundamental
sociological classification was between military societies, in which
cooperation was secured by force, and industrial societies, in which
cooperation was voluntary and spontaneous.
Evolution is not the only biological conception that Spencer applied
in his sociological theories. He made a detailed comparison between
animal organisms and human societies. In both he found a regulative
system (the central nervous system in the one, government in the other),
a sustaining system (alimentation in the one case, industry in the
other), and a distribution system (veins and arteries in the first;
roads, telegraphs, etc., in the second). The great difference between an
animal and a social organism, he said, is that, whereas in the former
there is one consciousness relating to the whole, in the latter
consciousness exists in each member only; society exists for the benefit
of its members and not they for its benefit.
This individualism is the key to all of Spencer’s work. His contrast
between military and industrial societies is drawn between despotism,
which is primitive and bad, and individualism, which is civilized and
good. He believed that in industrial society the order achieved, though
planned by no one, is delicately adjusted to the needs of all parties.
In The Man Versus the State (1884) he wrote that England’s Tories
generally favour a military and Liberals an industrial social order but
that the Liberals of the latter half of the 19th century, with their
legislation on hours of work, liquor licensing, sanitation, education,
etc., were developing a “New Toryism” and preparing the way for a
“coming slavery.” “The function of liberalism in the past was that of
putting a limit to the powers of kings. The function of true liberalism
in the future will be that of putting a limit to the powers of
In his emphasis on variety and differentiation, Spencer was unwittingly
repeating, in a 19th-century idiom, the metaphysics of liberalism that
Spinoza and Leibniz had adumbrated in the 17th century. Spinoza had
maintained that “God or Nature” has an infinity of attributes in which
every possibility is actualized, and Leibniz had argued that the
perfection of God is exhibited in the infinite variety of the universe.
Though neither of them believed that time is an ultimate feature of
reality, Spencer combined a belief in the reality of time with a belief
in the eventual actualization of every possible variety of being. He
thus gave metaphysical support to the liberal principle of variety,
according to which a differentiated and developing society is preferable
to a monotonous and static one.
Spencer’s attempt to synthesize the sciences showed a sublime audacity
that has not been repeated because the intellectual specialization he
welcomed and predicted increased even beyond his expectations. His
sociology, although it gave an impetus to the study of society, was
superseded as a result of the development of social anthropology since
his day and was much more concerned with providing a rationale for his
social ideals than he himself appreciated. Primitive men, for example,
are not the childlike emotional creatures that he thought them to be,
nor is religion to be explained only in terms of the souls of ancestors.
When T.H. Huxley said that Spencer’s idea of a tragedy was “a deduction
killed by a fact,” he called attention to the system-building feature of
Spencer’s work that led him to look for what confirmed his theories and
to ignore or to reinterpret what conflicted with them.
Harry Burrows Acton
Philosophy and religion.
The Nature and Reality of Religion, 1885 (withdrawn from publication).
Spencer’s series on Synthetic Philosophy comprises: First Principles,
1862; The Principles of Biology, 2 vol., 1864–67; The Principles of
Psychology, 1855; The Principles of Sociology, 3 vol., 1876–96; The
Principles of Ethics, 2 vol., 1892–93.
Political and social.
The Proper Sphere of Government, 1843; Social Statics, 1851; Education:
Intellectual, Moral, Physical, 1861; The Study of Sociology, 1872; The
Man Versus the State, 1884; Facts and Comments, 1902.
Essays: Scientific, Political, and Speculative, 3 vol., 1891;
Autobiography, 1904, an intellectual rather than a personal